The term plumbing is derived from the Latin word "plumbum," the name of the metal lead that was the preferred material used by the Romans to construct their empire's water supply systems. This bit of history is even relevant today as the continued use of this potentially toxic metal has made headlines because of recently exposed problems in the Flint, Mich., water supply.
When I was a boy, playing in the sandbox or building with blocks, I dreamed of building cities. I feel fortunate to be in a profession which allows me to fulfill that dream. To enjoy your job is a more important measure of success than the amount of money in your bank account. My favorite definition of success is borrowed from Ann Landers:
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has released a 2015 edition of NFPA 70E: Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. It covers and assists in complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Association's requirements, including changes to requirements since the last edition. For personal safety in forensic studies it is important to stay informed of these updates. NFPA 70E covers arc flash risk assessment, establishment of arc flash boundaries, requirements of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), use of PPE within the arc flash boundary, and equipment labeling requirements regarding arc flash hazards. The following examples illustrate the importance of staying abreast of the latest standards.
Too frequently an attorney will begin to seek a potential expert witness only after having done considerable initial work. Often there is a last minute rush to locate and select specialized technical assistance. These approaches can have expensive consequences. Alternatively, securing a suitable expert early in the litigation process offers the following advantages for the retaining attorney:
Many negative consequences can result from failures of a range of different products that often lead to property & casualty insurance disputes or product liability legal actions. The products may include consumer or industrial goods. Typically the private user or worker is injured or a business incurs significant financial loss. The injured individual, insurance carrier, attorney(s) or industrial manufacturer and user are all interested to confirm what went wrong – and who is liable. Resolution often depends on engineering analysis.
Cooling for indoor Grow Ops involves more than simply adding up the lighting watts and converting that into cooling tons. Plants release a surprising amount of moisture into the air (by transpiration, plus evaporation from the soil), and this has to be accommodated as latent load in the air conditioning equipment. The result when using standard air conditioning equipment for dehumidification will often be over-cooling or insufficient dehumidification. Adding in-room dehumidifiers can help, however they normally reject the heat from the process back into the room, which the air conditioning equipment needs to remove.
I expect that in the future architects, owners, engineers, and occupants will work together to “engineer” buildings as active, “living” systems that put more energy back into the grid than they use and also help to clean the air and water in the nearby communities.
A licensed professional engineer (P.E.) is required to adhere to a Code of Ethics for Engineers in all work he undertakes. However, there are some special criteria when employed as an expert witness.
In urban and suburban areas, stormwater systems are found everywhere. From surface waterways, such as rivers, streams, and ditches, to subsurface drainage systems, such as storm sewers and culverts, stormwater systems are as ubiquitous as concrete, which is one of the reasons they are so important (Figure 1). Impervious surfaces like concrete, pavement, and roofs prevent stormwater from naturally absorbing into the ground, and the resulting runoff can cause flooding, erosion, and subsequent structural damage.
A comprehensive engineering analysis was performed on a coke oven battery roof and heating walls. Coke oven batteries are constructed with refractory bricks.