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Bus Accidents Expert Witnesses

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Dr. Karen Magarian
The Smart Choice for IME / DME Observers
P.O. Box 25978
Los Angeles CA 90025
USA
phone: 888-977-8393 (888-XPRT EYE ) or 818-786-7412
fax: 818-786-7413
ADVANTAGE REPRESENTATIVES (based in Los Angeles, CA) assists plaintiff personal injury attorneys by providing a reliable, experienced forensic observer to accompany clients (as an attorney's representative) during their Independent / Defense Medical Examination. Our primary function is to uphold limitations (per Response to Demand), audio record, document and evaluate the IME/DME. I am also available for expert witness testimony at deposition, arbitration or trial.

Specifically requested by hundreds of personal injury lawyers, Dr. Magarian is readily familiar with many local orthopedic and neurologic defense experts and can thereby provide valuable insight about their particular style and technique.

Since 1988, Dr. Magarian's gracious and professional demeanor, along with discerning and experienced attention to detail, have ranked her as the most sought-after independent observers in Southern California.

Areas of Specialization:
  • Motor Vehicle (Auto/Motorcycle/Bus) Accidents
  • Bicycle & Pedestrian Accidents
  • Slip/Trip & Fall Injuries
  • Dog Bite & Burn Injuries
  • Train/Plane/Boat Accidents
  • Med Malpractice
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Ralph Aronberg
P.E., President
13762 W. State Road 84, Suite 424
Ft. Lauderdale FL 33325
USA
phone: 954-236-6605
fax: 954-236-3327
Ralph Aronberg, P.E., has reconstructed over 1,500 accidents and has testified in over 150 jury trials, since founding the firm in 1983. He provides Expert Witness services in the areas of:
  • Traffic accident reconstruction (cars, trucks, motorcycles and pedestrians).
  • Vehicle occupant kinematics (seatbelts)
  • Biomechanics
  • Traffic engineering design (geometrics, signing, markings, signals and lighting)
  • Sight distance analysis
  • Hazardous roadway conditions
  • Work Zone Traffic Control evaluation
  • Evaluation of roadway curvature
  • Traffic signal operations
  • Pedestrian safety
  • Computerized accident reconstruction and simulation
  • Vehicle "black box" data retrieval (certified>
  • Mr. Aronberg is published in the fields of pedestrian / bicycle / motorcycle accident reconstructions, and 3 Dimensional Animations and Scientific Visualizations through the Society of Automotive Engineers. Mr. Aronberg is a Fellow member of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and certified as a Diplomat in forensic Engineering.
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    Dennis Wylie
    P.O. Box 60836
    Santa Barbara CA 93160
    USA
    phone: 805-681-9289
    fax: 805-681-9299
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    Dennis Wylie Human Factors Expert PhotoDennis Wylie is an internationally recognized Human Factors Expert on driver error; inattention and improper lookout; driver fatigue; car, truck and bus driver skill and knowledge requirements; driver and motor carrier standards of care; hours of service violations; circadian rhythms; sleep debt; impaired vigilance, alertness, decision making, reaction time, and control responses.

    Mr. Wylie directed the largest study of driver fatigue and alertness conducted in North America, a seven-year multimillion dollar international project that was the main factor in major revision of the federal and state rules governing working hours for commercial automobile, truck, and bus drivers, including an increase in required off-duty time of 25%.

    Mr. Wylie and his colleagues also developed the national commercial driver licensing system. He is the principal author of the Commercial Driver's Manual used by all state licensing agencies for licensing commercial automobile, truck, and bus drivers. The information in the Commercial Driver's Manual defines the skill, knowledge and standard-of-care requirements for commercial drivers and is the basis of the commercial driver license (CDL) tests. Mr. Wylie and his colleagues trained the first CDL Examiners in each state, who went on to train the others. All commercial drivers in the
    10/24/2011 · Human Factors
    Policies can be very difficult to change, and advocates of change who claim a logical or scientific foundation need valid, reliable, and convincing data. An example of the process is the policy of regulating truck drivers' hours of service in order to reduce motor vehicle crashes.

    Dennis Wylie (Contributing Author)
    Dennis Wylie authored the Chapter on Commercial Motor Vehicle Collisions (Ch. 17). In general, this book provides a comprehensive reference that provides the tools necessary for the preparation, analysis, and presentation of forensic evidence. Compiled by experienced, internationally respected authors, this handbook represents the state-of-the-art in the application of ergonomics to forensic investigation.
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    David P. Pingitore, Ph.D, ABPP
    See Multiple Addresses Below
    Oakland CA 94611
    USA
    phone: 510-433-7132
    fax: 510-428-9042
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    David Pingitore 
<br/><br/>Psychology Expert PhotoDavid P. Pingitore, PhD, ABPP, has over 30 years of experience in Professional Psychology as an administrator, faculty, researcher and clinician.

    Dr. Pingitore is Board Certified in Clinical Psychology through the American Board of Professional Psychology. Licensed to practice in California, Hawaii, and Nevada, Dr. Pingitore has conducted over 200 forensic psychological and neuropsychological assessments for the civil and criminal arenas. He has served as a consultative examiner for the Social Security Administration for over 20 years and was a member of the medical staff of two community hospitals during his professional career.

    Dr. Pingitore has been awarded two post doctoral fellowships. He participated in a 2 1/2 year post doctoral fellowship in primary care health psychology through Michigan State University with additional training in neuropsychology through the University of Michigan. He has also been awarded an NIMH Fellowship/Visiting Scholarship through the School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley.

    Litigation Support - He provides forensic psychological and neuropsychological assessment services including Civil and Criminal court-ordered examinations, Independent Medical Examinations (IMEs), Personal Injury assessments, and Qualified Medical Examinations. He has 15 years of experience in trial testimony as an expert witness.

    Dr. Pingitore is an expert in differential psychiatric diagnoses and in the evaluation of malingered neuro-cognitive deficits. He is a national consultant to IME companies, and to elder law, personal injury, employment compensation, and workers' compensation attorneys.

    Dr. Pingitore has published over 15 peer reviewed articles in psychology and is an Expert Reviewer for the California Board of Psychology and Medical Board. He is presently an examiner with the Alameda County Superior Court.

    Areas of Expertise:
    • Medical Malpractice
    • Depression
    • Traumatic Brain Injury
  • Symptom Validity Assessment
  • PTSD
  • Geriatric Psychology
  • Oakland Office
    17 Glen Eden Avenue, #3
    Oakland, CA 94611
    Telephone: 510-433-7132

    Fresno Office
    2060 N. Winery Ave., Suite 101
    Fresno, CA 93710
    Telephone: 510-433-7132
    Modesto Office
    1015 12th Street
    Modesto, CA 95354
    Telephone: 510-433-7132

    Reno Office
    542 Lander Street
    Reno, NV 98509
    Telephone: 510-433-7132


    View Dr. Pingitore's Consulting Profile.
    8/16/2016 · Psychology
    Changes in practice patterns routinely occur over time, both with in an individual psychologist's practice and between generations of practitioners. However, little empirical research has been conducted to examine psychologists' practice patterns across their collective professional life span, and whether meaningful differences exist in these patterns among a sample of psychologists. This attic Ie examines clinical practice patterns among a sample of California psychologists whose collective career life span ranges from I to 40 years of postlicensure experience. The data for this aIticle were drawn from the 2000 California Survey of Psychological Practice (hereafter the California Survey; Pingitore, Scheffler, Haley, Sentell, & Schwalm, 200Ia).

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    David B. Spiegler, CCM
    President
    7084 Cataluna Circle
    Delray Beach FL 33446
    USA
    phone: 561-498-3795 or 978-996-6708
    fax: 561-638-4189
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    David B. Spiegler, CCM has more than 45 years of proven experience in providing expertise across a broad spectrum of activities involving Meteorology, Climatology, and the Environment. Since the 1980s, he has provided expert analysis for more than 50 law firms and insurance companies on weather related legal and/or insurance claims. Mr. Spiegler has worked on cases in a number of states and has testified in district and superior courts, at arbitration hearings, and at environmental regulatory hearings. He has always been found to be qualified by the court.

    Mr. Spiegler's cases range from slip and fall accidents, to motor vehicle, aircraft, and boating accidents, wrongful death and homicide, as well as cases for which damage to – or loss of – property from wind , snow, heavy rain, flooding, and ocean waves occurred. For many cases, he visited the site of the event and evaluated the physical and terrain factors. For all cases, he acquired, analyzed, and interpreted the weather data, reconstructed the weather at the time and location of the event/incident and/or damage or loss, and provided expert opinion and rationale for the opinion.

    Services Offered:
  • Forensic Meteorology - build legal and insurance cases
  • Weather Industry Consulting - increases market share and profits
  • Weather and Climate Analysis - yields informed business decisions due to the impact of weather and climate
  • 5/3/2013 · Meteorology
    Certified Consulting Meteorologist and Fellow of the American Meteorological Society (AMS)

    5/10/2011 · Environment
    I read with interest the article by Ken Kaye on two scientist's challenge of other scientist's linking warmer oceans to more intense hurricanes (Sun-Sentinel page 1, December 13, 2007).

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    Gary E. Kilpatrick, PE, DFE
    President and Chief Engineering Officer
    3397 Cherrybrook Drive
    Jamestown NC 27282
    USA
    phone: 336-841-6354 (Office) 336-803-1639 (Cell)
    fax: 336-841-6375
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    Who is Kilpatrick Forensics?

    Kilpatrick Forensics is a forensic engineering firm that provides forensic engineering services for our legal and insurance clients. Mr. Kilpatrick travels throughout the United States in order to investigate motor vehicle crashes and product defects and failure claims resulting in personal injury or death. Mr. Kilpatrick is a board certified vehicle crash reconstruction engineer through the National Academy of Forensic Engineers (NAFE) and is a Diplomat Forensic Engineer (DFE). He is also a part-time instructor for Northwestern University through their Center For Public Safety and is a firm believer in continuing education.

    The Mission of Kilpatrick Forensics:

    Mr. Kilpatrick’s mission is to provide to you forensic engineering services that are dedicated to the application of the art, science and methodology of engineering and the scientific method in order to answer questions of fact in the jurisprudence system to assist the trier of fact concerning motor vehicle accidents and motor vehicle product defect and failure claims. Mr. Kilpatrick utilizes his engineering knowledge, skill, experience, training and education to give you an objective professional opinion that is thorough and comprehensive, understandable and timely. He has submitted written expert reports in state and federal court and has given sworn expert testimony under oath during both deposition and trial.

    What services does Kilpatrick Forensics provide? (also see the following pages)
    • At-Scene Investigation and Evidence Mapping
    • Motor Vehicle Crash Reconstruction
    • Vehicle Crash Testing
    • Vehicle Skid Testing
    • Image, Store and Analyze a Vehicle’s Crash Data Report (CDR) stored in the EPROM circuitry of a Vehicle’s Airbag Control Module (ACM)
    • Photogrammetry Studies of Police Photographs
    • Airbag and Seat Belt Inspections
    • School Bus Crash Reconstruction
    • Tractor Trailer/Heavy Trucks Crash Reconstruction
    • Motorcycle Crash Reconstruction
    • ATV and ROHV Crash Reconstruction
    • Computer Based Dynamic Motor Vehicle Crash Simulations Videos
    • Standards of Care for Motor Vehicles
    • SAE Standards
    • National Highway Traffic and Safety Administration (NHTSA) Regulations
    • Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Regulations
    • Product Defect and Failure Analyses
    • Machine Design and Analyses
    • Computer Aided Design (CAD)
    Who are the clients of Kilpatrick Forensics?

    Mr. Kilpatrick works with law firms, public defenders and insurance companies on civil plaintiff, civil defendant, criminal and insurance claimant cases.

    How can you contact Kilpatrick Forensics?

    Mr. Kilpatrick’s corporate office is located in Jamestown North Carolina. Visit our website at www.kilpatrickforensics.com. Please feel free to contact him any time at office at 336-841-6354 or cell phone at 336-803-1639.
    During 1990, the Specialty Vehicle Institute of America (SVIA) with the assistance of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) published the first standard for ATVs referred to as ANSI/SVIA-1-1990. During 2001, ANSI/SVIA revised this standard referred to as standard ANSI/SVIA 1-2001. The standard was revised again during 2007 and again in 2010 and is referred to as standard ANSI/SVIA 1-2010.

    A Traffic Accident Reconstruction is a process by which an engineer determines from all available information and evidence how and why a traffic accident occurred including but not limited to pre-impact and post impact vehicular velocity vectors, pre-impact and post impact vehicular direction vectors, vehicular change in velocity (Delta-V), momentum vectors, vehicles' point of impact on the roadway, vehicular visibility by a driver, vehicular crash data retrieval reports if assessable, accident factors and causes.

    7/8/2011 · Engineering
    Quality control starts at the point of product conception and is carried all the way through to the final design and manufacture of a product.

    Some motor vehicle accidents take place during the night time hours when natural sun light is not present.

    When we drive our vehicles down the road, we are driving them at a certain velocity and direction. All vehicles have weight and mass to the order of a few hundred pounds for a motorcycle, a few thousand pounds for a large SUV or luxury car or several tons for a tractor-trailer truck. When our vehicles move at speed down the road, they create energy by virtue of their mass and forward velocity

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    Ned Einstein
    President
    15-17 S. William Street,Suite 3A
    New York NY 10004
    USA
    phone: 212-766-1121 (NY) or 818-988-4586 (LA)
    fax: 212-766-1122
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    Areas of Expertise: Accident analysis, testimony and mediation in vehicle and pedestrian accidents involving transit, paratransit, schoolbus, motorcoach, special education, non-emergency medical transportation, taxi, shuttle, child transport systems and services; slips and falls; crossing, boarding and alighting; wheelchairs; seatbelts; ADA and accessibility; passenger safety, security and sexual abuse; vehicle design, specification, crashworthiness, quality assurance and product liability; industry standards and practices; driver training and vehicle operation; management, monitoring, supervision and enforcement; maintenance; NHTSA, FTA, FMCSA and USDOT regulations; vehicle testing and certification; contract negotiation and compliance; risk management; planning and system design.

    The Firm: Transportation Alternatives is a passenger transportation and automotive consortium engaged in consulting and forensic accident investigation and analysis (more than 350 cases). Specializes in elderly, disabled, schoolchildren.

    Education: MURP (Urban and Regional Planning): George Washington University, 1975 BA, English Literature: Rutgers University, 1969

    Professional Experience:
  • President, Transportation Alternatives (1980 to present). Consulted to USDOT, transit agencies, private contractors, social service agencies, municipalities and school districts. Designed several major transportation systems
  • Chairman/General Manager, PTS Transportation (1982-1992). Directed operations of a 70-vehicle paratransit system for physically and developmentally disabled individuals and a non-emergency medical transportation (NEMT) service
  • President, TAM-USA (1989-1995). Formed and directed a U.S.-Slovene joint venture company which coordinated the design, testing, certification and marketing of a European-manufactured school bus and motorcoach.

    Appointments and Memberships:
  • American Public Transportation Association
  • National Association of Pupil Transportation
  • United Motorcoach Association
  • American Bus Association
  • Community Transportation Association of America
  • Association Internationale pour la Sécurité du Transport des Jeunes
  • National School Transportation Conference (1995, 2000, 2005)
  • Committee on School Transportation Safety, National Academy of Sciences
  • Bus Industry Safety Committee (ABA)
  • Access Committee (APTA)
  • 8/19/2016 · Transportation
    The notion of "screening" driver-candidates for Sleep Apnea screening is not merely unsupportable, it is a delusion. In 2011, 517 truck drivers in Australia were tested for Obstructive Sleep Apnea ("Assessing Sleepiness and Sleep Disorder in Truck Drivers" in SLEEP, 2011). According to an anonymous self-evaluation questionnaire (a "multivariable apnea prediction index, based on self-report measures"), only 12% felt they had it, while roughly 4.4% had tested positive for it. Yet when all of them were tested, 41% more of them had this condition. The testing also found that a full 50% of the study participants were obese, and 49% of them smoked cigarettes. Neither of these parameters are included among the handful of criteria currently employed by either the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration's or Federal Railway Administration's "recommended" screening exercise -- although, In fairness, the size-17 male neck (or size 16 female neck) serves as a proxy for obesity. At the same time, as noted below, it also captures plenty of "false positives."

    6/29/2016 · Transportation
    Like most fields, public transportation is swollen with studies, both in the U.S. and abroad. Yet some of the most fascinating things seem to be never studied, or rarely studied.

    5/23/2016 · Transportation
    This final installment of this series provides the rewards for reading the first six: Starting-point ideas about things the motorcoach industry can do defend its density against intrusion from Transportation Network Companies (like Uber, Lyft and Sidecar), which have already begun plunging into the charter and tour sectors, mostly with medium-sized, body-on-chassis vehicles. It also includes things that would help increase profits and create new service opportunities - and compete with new, legitimate players penetrating the market.

    4/13/2016 · Transportation
    As NATIONAL BUS TRADER readers following this series have noted, our judicial system seems to be "running the table" with TNC-related issues. The $220,000,000 settlement of a case against FEDEX effectively eliminated the notion of an "independent contractor" in its six states. And the California courts are soon likely to boot out Uber. The FEDEX case in the U.S. Court's 10th Circuit effectively rippled a TNC's ability to deprive its drivers of a regular employee's costly array of fringe benefits. This settlement is likely to soon play out in the other nine "Circuit" encompassing the other 44 states. And if Uber is booted out of California altogether, on top of the FEDEX settlement, the TNC threat will be diminished significantly.

    3/11/2016 · Transportation
    Practically beginning my public transportation career as a consultant to the U.S. Department of Transportation, I learned to hate "Wash-Speak." Government agencies do not compound things; they exacerbate them. They use nothing, but utilize everything. They never start anything, yet implement everything. And much-ado-about nothing is usually referred to as a paradigm shift.

    2/25/2016 · Transportation
    Well, by now, the "Cat's Out of the Bag" about transportation network companies (TNCs). For this, we owe our thanks to National Bus Trader, Limo, Charter and Tours Magazine (especially) and the United Motorcoach Association. The August 15, 2015 issue of the UMA-sponsored Bus & Motorcoach News contained two articles about these previously-unfettered, robot-controlled beasts.

    2/3/2016 · Transportation
    These past five years, practically unnoticed until this last one, have witnessed the most radical change in public transportation since the introduction of scheduling software in the Early 90s: The invasion of traditional, analog services wallowing in their nostalgia by hyper- [or uber]-digital counterparts big on access, low on some concerns, and flying beneath virtually every City's and State's regulatory radar.

    1/6/2016 · Transportation
    Mitchell Rouse! In the 1980s, a strapping, 6'4"-inch-tall visionary who had inherited a 50-vehicle taxicab company and, within a few years, expanded it into a 350-vehicle leviathan, along with eight small paratransit operations. With a heavily-computerized operation a decade before Windows took over the World, his dispatch office still answered every call with a live Earthling. Wilmington/Checker Cab was all about decency, respect and efficiency. And at a time when most of Los Angeles County was beginning to deteriorate rapidly into lines, menus, incompetence and traffic. Yet, as a brilliant manager with an expanding corporate mentality, Rouse was also a rabid supporter of Unionism, and embraced his Teamster's affiliation with pride.

    12/15/2015 · Transportation
    Like every mode of public transportation, and for almost every aspect of our society, the motorcoach industry has, over the decades, been affected significantly by regulations. Some of these experiences were challenging yet produced dramatic results that, among other benefits, have saved us money. One terrific example is that modern motorcoaches dump perhaps one percent of the particulates into our environment than they did a mere two decades ago. Here, the regulations, though challenging, were at least realistic. But our industries' (and other bus modes') responses to it - effectively our engine manufacturers - were far more important than the regulations: Their responses were magnificent.

    11/18/2015 · Transportation
    The explosion of digital technology has triggered increases in vehicle costs, purged small and medium-sized companies from the transportation landscape, and contributed to a nationwide shortage of qualified drivers. But it has taken its greatest toll on management, where supervisors with a genuine understanding of transportation are gradually being replaced by armies of "templeteers."

    11/2/2015 · Transportation
    In the last installment of National Bus Trader, "Fatigue Monitoring Technology" presented an overview of the approaches and devices in development, and available, to prevent and detect driver fatigue. But unlike prevention technologies, fatigue detection devices raise a unique question: What happens when they work?!

    9/30/2015 · Transportation
    Little in public transportation is as challenging as driving load upon load of wheelchair occupants, with unique needs (and often unique chairs), in all directions, with last-minute one-of-a-kind trips dispatched into tight schedules created days, or even weeks, in advance. Yet this is precisely what paratransit drivers do - hour after hour, day after day.

    8/14/2015 · Transportation
    With panoramic/wraparound windshields lying against the front plane, sun visors, tinted windshields, crossover and parabolic mirror systems, ergonomic driver compartments with tilting/telescopic steering columns and pneumatically-adjustable seats, video surveillance cameras and motion detection sensors - much less corrective lenses, sunglasses, annual vision examinations, and continual improvements in headlamps - one would think that bus drivers could see and react to large objects appearing directly in front of their vehicles. But, as many jurors learn, one would be wrong.

    7/8/2015 · Transportation
    Comparing their relative safety to that of other vehicles, a number of motorcoach features come immediately to mind: Mass, monocoque construction pneumatic suspension, and fully-padded, forward-facing seats. Yet incidents like these still occur:

    6/12/2015 · Transportation
    No, this is not the name of a case. It refers to a dangerous conflict coursing through the bus and motorcoach industries - a conflict that we cannot afford to let exist.

    5/13/2015 · Transportation
    The previous article in this series emphasized the importance of transportation professionals selecting bus stops instead of students or their parents doing so. Regardless, while plenty of tools are available to help, the critical tool for evaluating and approving safe bus stops is a live Earthling.

    In the last installment (STN, Jun, 2007), I stressed the importance of distinguishing between an actual bus stop and the waiting area across the street from it in terms of safety. But the selection of the stop and waiting area also involves concerns for student security. Sometimes, there are trade-offs that must be made. These trade-off are often complex and subtle. But they must be made correctly.

    3/6/2015 · Transportation
    Except in rural areas with vast distances between intersections, a bus stop can reasonably be placed in one of three positions:

    1/26/2015 · Transportation
    In those rare instances where the safety of transportation modes can be compared statistically, bus riders fare several decimal points better than bicycle riders. The risks associated with motorcycles are "off the charts." The Figure below illustrates these comparisons for "home-to-school" trips - trips that comprise 15 percent of all transit trips and 96 percent of all schoolbus trips.

    12/17/2014 · Transportation
    Every responsible society has mechanisms to hold its citizens, and their organizations, accountable for their actions. With respect to safety, our society effects this goal through the enactment and enforcement of statutes and regulations, and through the process of civil litigation. As with most rules and most societies, many of our transportation organizations have discovered loopholes. Employing these loopholes, they have effectively reduced their liability exposure at the cost of compromising safety.

    11/11/2014 · Transportation
    Unlike those of many transit systems, schoolbus stops are not always identified with signage - at either the precise position of the stop or signage indicating that a schoolbus stop is approaching (the black glyph on yellow background). Rarely is the stop zone itself marked (for example, by red-lining the curb). In particular, the failure to mark the stop's precise positioning can be problematic - and occasionally dangerous.

    10/2/2014 · Transportation
    As pressure from the unknowing continues to mount, rumors have it that the U.S. motorcoach industry is slowly inching toward the installation of seatbelts. That we are doing so by skipping the decades of seat compartmentalization that has helped fend off most seatbelt advocates in the schoolbus industry is only more unfortunate since existing motorcoach seats lend themselves to a far more evolved form of compartmentalization than the "incomplete compartmentalization" (in NHTSA's own words) of their yellow body-on-chassis cousins.

    8/27/2014 · Transportation
    Question: What is the difference between a poorly-selected and -designed bus stop and a land mine? Answer: Very little. When you step on either of them, your ankles, knees and hips are likely to explode. The genuine difference is that the carnage from land mines is intentional, whereas that of poorly-selected and -designed bus stops usually reflects incompetence and, often, indifference.

    7/23/2014 · Transportation
    As it affects liability, an operating agency's status as a "common carrier" has an enormous impact not only on determining liability itself, but depending on legal constructs in various states, can also affect considerations like immunity and/or the assessment of punitive damages - often barriers to the assessment of damages afforded to public agencies. So except for motorcoaches deployed in commuter/express service under contract to public transit agencies, these latter considerations rarely affect motorcoach operations in the courtroom.

    6/13/2014 · Transportation
    In rural areas, children spaced far apart were once transported to school by horse and wagon. After the first day of school, the horses learned the routes and simply repeated them day after day, eliminating the need for drivers. The vehicles were cheap, and the engines ran effectively on oats. As our nation changed, pupil transportation's development reflected our increasing urbanization and, later, suburbanization. These developments included a new phenomenon known as traffic. As a safety matter, the need for pupil transportation grew to reflect a child's inability to cross streets or negotiate intersections, as verified by studies like the 1968 Swedish study "Children in Traffic." In simple terms, children below age 13, and particularly below age 10, do not possess the physical, mental and emotional skills necessary to cross streets and intersections.

    At the rudimentary level at which most crossing procedures are executed, schoolbus drivers are supposed to "direct" the students across the roadway when they are certain that either the traffic has been stopped in both directions or it is so distant (if even visible) that the students could easily complete their crossing before any oncoming vehicles reach the bus. The bus would obviously have its red flashers and stop arm engaged as a "fail safe."

    Drummed into my head as a schoolchild was the mantra, "Cross at the Green, Not In Between." This slogan still provides the basis for Today's thinking about following the pedestrian path to and from school or a student's bus stop. When last year, a study of 7,000 pedestrian accidents in New York City over a four-year period was released, its findings turned this century-old cliché on its head. The implications for the pupil transportation industry are dramatic, and should awaken all of us to a new reality that may save hundreds if not thousands of lives a year, since most vehicle-pedestrian accidents happen to students walking or cycling to school, as well most of those traveling by schoolbus who are struck when crossing by third-party vehicles.

    For those readers who remember Jayne Mansfield, or even know who she was, this is not a story about her Hollywood exploits or bedroom acrobatics. It is a story about a common type of accident - a rear-ender involving an automobile striking a truck or bus - often referred to, in accident reconstruction circles, as "the Jayne Mansfield syndrome."

    1/31/2014 · Transportation
    I have often written about the impacts of overly-tight schedules as the primary causative factor in incidents - in fact, the underlying cause of perhaps half of them. Because speeding is one of the "cures" to this problem, one of its characteristics is the failure to slow down when the roadway surface is not, as jazz musicians say, "melody." One of the most common scenarios is to cruise over speed bumps and speed humps. Another is to fail to slow over rugged terrain, particularly potholes and the often dysfunctional patches that sloppy road crews create to "repair" them.

    12/30/2013 · Transportation
    For decades, multiple sources cited the commonly-accepted statistic that only an estimated four percent of all individuals possessed a medical condition known as Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). OSA is largely the result of certain physical characteristics and lifestyle habits that reduce the flow of oxygen into one's lungs while asleep. These characteristics result in lowered blood oxygen levels throughout one's normal night's sleep, and lower the quality of that sleep such that the individual is fatigued through much of the day.

    11/7/2013 · Transportation
    Supply and Demand: When it comes down to it, the ultimate dynamics of survival in life on Earth. More poetically, 70's pop artist icon James Taylor crooned, "You provide the satisfy, and I'll provide the need." So here we go on another jaunt to expand the scenarios for motorcoach usage. However, along the road, we are actually inventing a brand new mode - not that no one has necessarily tried this particular one before.

    10/11/2013 · Transportation
    As with every installment in this series of articles, this particular model or vision is highly unusual, has only limited application, and requires considerable creativity and effort to bring to life, and still contains some constraints even if and when one can develop it beyond the womb of an idea.

    9/24/2013 · Transportation
    There are plenty of things obvious to almost any adult, motorist or pedestrian about large vehicles. The most obvious is their size and mass. But at the other end of the spectrum lie nuances rarely understood by anyone who has not driven a vehicle with a long wheelbase: The way such a vehicle turns, and the way its tires "track" compared to those of a typical automobile, van or pickup truck.

    8/21/2013 · Transportation
    As NBT readers of my past columns well know, my perspective on accidents and their causation is pretty skewed because I spend most of my professional time examining their details.

    8/6/2013 · Transportation
    One of the most fundamental concepts of liability is that the defendant "takes the victim as he finds him." Apart from hospitals and nursing homes, few areas of modern life confront, litigate and test this principle as often as public transportation.

    7/18/2013 · Transportation
    As we all know, public transportation is a fiercely competitive business, even in operating environments which are subsidized. But the failure to make tiny investments in safety can be costly in the courtroom.

    2/26/2013 · Transportation
    Alcohol and bus ridership present a curious enigma. As a matter of public policy, we allow intoxication. As a matter of free market dynamics, we encourage it. And rightfully so, we want to protect those intoxicated from hurting themselves and others.

    12/20/2012 · Transportation
    This title makes me think immediately of funerals. This is not what this installment is about, although problems in the office and on the road often translate into funerals for operating companies, not just their accident victims.

    10/24/2012 · Transportation
    As most motorcoach community members know, contracting plays a major role in much of our operations - including the 30% of motorcoach service provided to schoolchildren on field trips, as well as the commuter-express service provided under contract to transit agencies.

    8/22/2012 · Transportation
    One would think in the Age of Irreversible and Growing Unemployment, employers could phase out their "dead wood" and find some personnel capable of performing their functions competently. Regrettably, bus agencies and companies are generally not among those which do.

    One of the unfortunate problems with non-news-oriented magazines is the juxtaposition of their readers' limited long-term memories coupled with the publishers' reluctance to repeat themes (much less whole articles) that are not linked to stories that reflect continuing news or problems.

    Recently, I conducted a workshop on safety and liability for transportation directors. I asked innocently, "What do you do after training?" Several attendees shouted out, "More training!"

    Many of our fundamental and commonly-held beliefs are invalid because they were derived, often haphazardly, from a blur of intuition, superstition, history, tradition and circumstance rarely subjected to scientific scrutiny. Before the inventions of artificial light and mechanical clocks, being awake during daylight and asleep during darkness were survival necessities - lest one be devoured by predators or stumble into a pit.

    In my review of more than 80 public transportation-related accidents and law suits, one almost universal theme has been the absence of any log review. This failure has generally combined with another common theme: A vehicle running behind schedule. The relationship between these two themes is easy to both understand and demonstrate - as is the acknowledgement that they constitute a genuine safety problem. But in a courtroom, the fact that system management failed to notice the vehicle running late - and worse, failed to even look for it - translates into a liability problem as well.

    Since driving a 20- or 25-ton motorcoach is touted as so being difficult, it is only fair to ask why so much carnage, and so many law suits, occur apart from collisions. In particular, the number of incidents occurring at or near stops seems largely disproportionate to the perceived simplicity of handling things when the bus or coach is stationary