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Thomas Read, PhD
Principal
1435 Fulton Rd.
Santa Rosa CA 95403
USA
phone: 707-544-2374
fax: 707-544-2370
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Expert Background: Dr. Thomas L. Read is the Principal and CEO at A. Read Consulting, LLC. He received his PhD. from Stanford University in 1972 and has over 25 years of manufacturing experience in electronics, metallurgy, factory safety, failure analysis, glass fracture, glass failure and bottle failure. As a member of the electronics industry, he has earned process patents and has an extensive background in manufacturing techniques.

In parallel, Dr. Read has spent over twenty five years as a consultant to attorneys and engineers. He has given more than 100 depositions and has appeared in court numerous times.

Company Profile: Read Consulting, LLC is a full service laboratory providing services in the following areas:
  • Failure Analysis; Factory Safety and Personal Injury (including machine guards and manufacturing safety)
  • Glass Failure Analysis - Glass Fracture, Glass Failures and Bottle Failure
  • Metal and Ceramic Failure
  • Grinding Wheel Failures
  • Intellectual Property and Patent Disputes
  • Product Liability and Product Quality
  • Manufacturing Disagreements (such as Intellectual Property, Failed equipment and Contract Disputes)
  • Reverse Engineering
  • As "water hammer" (i.e. liquid impact) has the potential to cause glass bottle failure, Read Consulting LLC created two such failures to study the resulting fracture surface details.

    4/23/2015 · Failure Analysis
    Read Consulting was asked to determine why a welded chair failed and caused injury to the person sitting in it.

    The root cause of the failure of customer returns of heated automobile rear view mirrors was investigated.

    During normal operation, the arm on an automatic wafer test station failed. Root cause failure analysis determined that the drive shaft on the right angle gear motor used to raise and lower the manipulator arm had failed first.

    5/21/2012 · Failure Analysis
    This grinding wheel was part of a product liability and personnel injury case. It was claimed that the subject wheel had unexpectedly failed (i.e. flown apart) and an escaping piece had hit the plaintiff in the face causing serious injuries. According to the user, the grinder with the wheel was purchased approximately one hour before the grinding wheel failure.

    3/29/2012 · Failure Analysis
    A failed plastic lawn chair was examined to determine the cause of failure. This chair failed on the premises of a restaurant In this study the subject chair is examined and compared to several exemplar purchased at the same time. The objective of this study is to determine the cause of failure.

    11/8/2011 · Failure Analysis
    Glass Failure Analysis Expert Witness performs a failure analysis of a several tempered glass doors that had "spontaneously" failed at a construction site. The objective of this glass failure analysis is to determine the cause of failure and make recommendations to the contractor.

    8/30/2011 · Failure Analysis
    Materials failure analysis expert performs a failure analysis to determine the source of a metal piece found in tomato product.

    5/17/2011 · Failure Analysis
    A plumbing failure analysis was performed to determine why a cold water supply line to a bathroom sink had failed after only one year of service.

    A glass failure expert witness performs a root cause failure analysis on an exploding beer bottle. The object of this root cause failure analysis is to determine the cause of the bottle failure.

    7/7/2009 · Design
    Before expending the effort necessary to reverse engineer a device or object, it must be definite that the object under study is not covered by one or more patents. This avoids a dispute over patent violations. Once it has been established that no patent coverage exists, one can use multiple techniques to reverse engineer a product. These are summarized below:

    The cracked tank was first inspected in the "as received" condition. In this condition it was cracked, but it was still whole. Next, the failed tank was separated by pulling it apart. This was done to expose the fracture surfaces of the main crack. This allowed for a complete failure analysis and for a determination of where the crack initiated.

    Glass fractography is the most effective method for determining why a glass object, such as a bottle, failed. This technique consists of examining the fracture surfaces of the failure for artifacts such as Wallner lines and using them to trace the crack back to its origin. Once the origin has been identified, it can be examined in detail with a microscope to determine the cause of the failure.

    1/28/2006 · Failure Analysis
    Note: Glass Fractography is the most effective method for determining why a glass object, such as a bottle, failed. This technique consists of examining the fracture surfaces of the failure for artifacts such as Wallner lines and using them to trace the crack back to its origin

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    Edward S. George, PE
    President, Principal Investigator
    124 Calle De Leon
    St Augustine FL 32086
    USA
    phone: 904-826-1431
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    Edward George Product Liability Failure Analysis Expert PhotoEdward S. George PE, has over 30 years of experience in the field of Product Liability and Failure Analysis.

    Mr. George earned his BS and MS degrees from the University of Florida Department of Materials Science and Engineering, graduating with a specialty in metallurgy. He is a licensed professional engineer in the State of Florida. Mr. George is a member of The National Society of Professional Engineers, The American Welding Society, The National Association of Forensic Engineers, The Florida Engineering Society, American Water Works Association, and The International Society for Fall Protection.

    Mr. George has experience in a variety of material failures including Metals, Polymers, Plastics, Composites, Ceramics, Glass, and Porcelain.

    Litigation Support - A court-qualified expert, Mr. George has over 13 years of experience and has testified in depositions and trials. His forensic training is complemented by his industrial experience including:
    • Heat Treating of Metals
    • Welding and Joining of Materials
    • Materials Testing and Evaluation
    • Quality Control and Assurance
    • Optical and Scanning Electron Microscopic Techniques
    • Destructive and Non-destructive Physical Testing
    • Laboratory Equipment and Procedures
    View Edward George's Consulting Profile.
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    Leslie Noel
    Marketing Director
    Corporate Headquarters
    11321 Plantside Drive
    Louisville KY 40299
    USA
    phone: 800-482-5611
    fax: 502-267-6973
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    Donan, a family owned company founded in 1947, provides full-service Forensic Engineering and Fire Investigation Services. For over 60 years, Donan Engineering has been providing unbiased answers to their client’s complicated questions. Their team of licensed and experienced forensic experts provides investigative services in the fields of engineering investigations, fire and explosion origin & cause, roofing investigations, and component testing. The diversity of their multidisciplinary staff allows them to provide not only a complete service, but a complete service whose conclusions can be successfully and completely supported.

    Donan Engineering has become a richly diverse, industry leader with over 250 employees operating from 50 offices in 27 states including Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, Ohio, Tennessee, Wisconsin, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Louisiana, Texas, West Virginia, Virginia, and Oklahoma. Throughout their growth, Donan has maintained their commitment to providing exceptional customer service, unparalleled quality, unmatched integrity, and timely reporting. Most importantly, they pride ourselves on delivering their clients quality services at an affordable price.

    Services Include:
    Engineering Investigations
  • Bridges
  • Foundations and Basements
  • Geotechnical / Sink Holes
  • Lightning
  • Low and High Voltage
  • Mechanical Systems
  • Retaining Walls
  • Steel Construction
  • Trusses
  • Vehicle Mechanical Studies
  • Vibrations: Earthquakes and Blastings
  • Water Infiltration / Mold
  • Wood Frame Construction

  • Fire / Explosion Origin and Cause
  • Commercial Fires
  • Equipment Fires
  • Vehicle / Residential Fires

  • Roofing Investigations
  • Commercial
  • Residential - Asphalt Shingle
  • Residential - Slate, Tile, Etc.

  • Heavy Trucks
  • Motorcycles
  • Passenger Vehicles
  • 8/21/2017 · Engineering
    Does this sound familiar? The chimney is leaning and separating from the house. You observe separation between the chimney and the house that increases in width with height (i.e., there is no separation at the bottom and there is upwards of 2 inches of separation at the roofline) (Figure 1). The heavy self-weight of the chimney comprised of masonry components is prone to rotating away from the house due to settlement of the underlying soils. Further, due to the height of the chimney, a relatively small rotation of the chimney foundation could result in a significant separation toward the top of the chimney. Most commonly and rightfully so, the cause of the chimney displacement is settlement of the underlying soils supporting the chimney foundation.

    7/20/2017 · Construction
    Commonly called "flat roofs," most commercial buildings are actually clad with roof systems that provide about 1/8 to ¼ inch per foot of positive drainage. These roof systems are constructed differently than most steep-slope roof coverings and are typically watertight rather than water-shedding assemblies.

    6/27/2017 · Finance
    A recent Donan forensic fire investigation found that a poor connection in a floor-mounted duplex receptacle was the cause of fire. The receptacle was located in the area of origin and all other identifiable causes were eliminated during the investigation. While conducting the research for this particular case, Donan investigators evaluated many scholarly sources in order to clearly educate the client on how a loose connection in a receptacle could lead to a structure fire which, in this case, nearly consumed the bedroom. The best explanation was found in the chemistry associated with the formation of an oxide that contributes to the condition.

    Over the past several years, there has been a clear trend of phasing out "dry-charge" air conditioners and heat pumps. What happened, why are some contractors still selling them, and what are the current common repair/replace options? Read this insightful article for everything you need to know on the topic.

    12/2/2016 · Engineering
    The term plumbing is derived from the Latin word "plumbum," the name of the metal lead that was the preferred material used by the Romans to construct their empire's water supply systems. This bit of history is even relevant today as the continued use of this potentially toxic metal has made headlines because of recently exposed problems in the Flint, Mich., water supply.

    7/29/2016 · Forensics
    Most forensic investigation projects include a scope to determine the cause of some damage or condition. Project scopes often request determining the cause and origin of the damage. Since insurance policies contain descriptions of covered and non-covered situations, clearly specifying causes and origins is crucial for clients' coverage decisions. This article discusses the differences between and significance of these two important terms.

    4/18/2016 · Construction
    Brick masonry chimneys have been prevalent for centuries, but it wasnt until recent decades that brick-clad, wood-framed chimneys became common in residential construction. This trend resulted from the increasing popularity of metal insert fireplaces. While they may appear similar from the exterior, the structure and weather-resistant envelope of wood-framed chimneys are very different than masonry-built chimneys. Prior to studying damage, it is important to understand critical elements in the structural support and weather-resistant envelope of wood-framed chimneys and the types of damage that can result from improper construction.[1]

    Fires can be caused by devices that fail due to a manufacturer's defect. Quality assurance procedures have gone a long way to eliminate out-of-box failures but manufacturers sometimes bypass quality checks on consumer products for competitive reasons. Even the most ethical companies are susceptible to human error that can cause an almost imperceptible change in an otherwise flawless manufacturing procedure.

    As the days get shorter and temperatures turn milder, most HVAC systems are taking a well-earned vacation. For a short while, a cool breeze through open windows will be enough to keep us comfortable in our homes. But soon, homeowners will switch their thermostats from cooling mode to heating mode, and some of them will unfortunately discover their HVAC system does not heat. It's time to pull out those extra blankets and make the call to a service professional sooner than expected.

    12/21/2015 · Construction
    Wood bowstring trusses were used extensively in commercial buildings from the 1920s to the 1960s. Wood bowstring roof trusses provided long clear spans necessary in warehouse and industrial buildings. Many roofs supported by bowstring trusses are still in service today. Compared with other structural timber-truss types, bowstring trusses have exhibited more frequent structural problems. The structural deficiencies encountered are attributable to deficiencies in the original design of the trusses combined with damage due to exposure and age.

    9/28/2015 · Engineering
    The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) has released a 2015 edition of NFPA 70E: Standard for Electrical Safety in the Workplace. It covers and assists in complying with the Occupational Safety and Health Association's requirements, including changes to requirements since the last edition. For personal safety in forensic studies it is important to stay informed of these updates. NFPA 70E covers arc flash risk assessment, establishment of arc flash boundaries, requirements of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), use of PPE within the arc flash boundary, and equipment labeling requirements regarding arc flash hazards. The following examples illustrate the importance of staying abreast of the latest standards.

    7/16/2015 · Construction
    History shows us that building codes have been around for a long time - in fact, the earliest known was around in 2000BC[1]. Penalties were also much harsher for construction defects. If a builder constructed a house that collapsed and killed the owner, the builder was not fined, but was put to death. The United States has been a country with diverse codes - as many as 5,000 at one time. More recently, however, various states and municipalities have adopted "model" codes such as the International Building Code or International Residential Code. These provide a "base" and may be used as written or an Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ) may amend certain parts of the model code, making it more stringent and/or specific for a certain area.

    5/14/2015 · Forensics
    Whether it is helping us formulate our opinion or confirming an initial diagnosis, technology plays a valuable role in forensic engineering work. Following are a few examples of existing technology available to Donan's project managers. Though not standard issue, these tools are utilized when necessary to accurately determine or confirm a cause of loss.

    There are many types, manufacturers, and sizes of commercial HVAC systems which can make it difficult to create general guidelines for repair procedures and estimates for hail-damaged units. This guide uses the most common "light commercial" rooftop units (RTUs), which are 5-tons, 7.5-tons, and 10-tons in capacity, for estimating time to repair or replace.

    Imagine for a moment that you are sitting in your home, listening to the rain while reading your favorite novel. Then suddenly you hear a roar of thunder and your home becomes dark. What just happened? You may have just experienced a power surge. Although lightning is not the most common cause of this phenomenon, it is excellent for illustrating what a power surge is and how it can affect your home. A power surge is a term used to describe a condition where the voltage and or current increases beyond its normal levels. Power surges, when due to the elevation of the voltage being supplied by the electrical utility company, have the potential to change data streams, interrupt electrical control circuits, burn out components, cause arcs, create shorts between conductors, overload systems, and cause system failures. The most common causes of power surges are indicated as follows:

    1/7/2015 · Construction
    Concrete is a desirable construction material due to its inherent strength and durability, which make it well-suited for many applications in residential and commercial construction, especially foundations, floor slabs, driveways, sidewalks, and roads, among other things. In these applications, concrete that is properly designed, mixed, placed, and maintained will perform exceptionally well for many years. However, poor design or mix, improper placement, finishing techniques, or inadequate maintenance may result in concrete that does not perform as intended. Aside from cracking, which is probably the most common form of distress to concrete, since virtually all concrete will crack as it cures, surface distress due to scaling, spalling, and popouts are the most common forms of damage.

    12/2/2014 · Construction
    The relationship between wind, hailstone velocity, and impact energy is based on an understanding of fundamental physics. Over a half century of laboratory research and field studies have determined that the severity of hail damage to a roofing material is contingent on the kinetic energy at the point of impact and the roofing material's resistance to that impact energy. These studies have found that a hailstone must be of a certain mass (i.e., size), and it must be traveling at a certain speed (velocity) to result in functional damage to the roofing material. The kinetic energy is a composition of mass and velocity, defined by the following equation:

    10/17/2014 · Construction
    Chances are, it's happened to you. An unexpected period of cold weather occurs and temperatures drop well below freezing for an extended period of time. One morning you attempt to turn the water on in the kitchen sink and...nothing. Hot water? Nope. Cold water? Nope. What happened? Did you forget to pay the water bill...again? Chances are, your pipes are frozen. "How can that happen? They are inside the house!", you may say; however, just because your water lines are inside the building envelope, does not mean they are adequately protected from freezing.

    9/4/2014 · Construction
    If hail impacts a roof covering and the effects of this impact result in some loss in the material's overall integrity or functionality, this material is classified as "hail damaged." More specifically for cedar shakes and shingles, valid hail damage is typically a new fracture of the cedar corresponding to a clean spot or scuff mark from the hailstone impact.

    7/25/2014 · Construction
    Although sags along roof ridgelines can be discovered at any time, in northern climates they are often attributed to the effects of a past snow load. To make an educated analysis of the actual cause of this phenomenon, one must have a basic understanding of the structure and the loads to which it has been subjected.

    Heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consist of many components that work in unison to create the desired comfort level for our homes and offices. A well maintained system is designed to last around 15 years, but the life can be dramatically reduced when proper installation procedures and routine maintenance are not performed.

    5/28/2014 · Construction
    Ice dams and their resultant leaks are often a chronic and expensive problem in those regions where snow-covered roofs are a common occurrence. To understand their detection, cause, and prevention requires some understanding of the dynamics of a structure's construction, insulation, and ventilation.

    A space heater is a device designed to warm a small area. These devices are typically portable, but the category does include gas- and wood-fueled models that are permanently installed; however, these are not the focus of this article.

    3/12/2014 · Failure Analysis
    Washing machine failures can create significant damage, exposing insurers and their clients to property damage. These failures often involve a high volume of water and can occur without warning. Through the examination of several hundred washing machines, the DONAN Component Testing Laboratory has identified a statistically significant failure trend in General Electric (GE) washing machines. The amount of water supplied to the tub of the washing machine is controlled by a water valve (solenoid-controlled valve) and pneumatic controls. The washing machine's load selector is a pneumatic pressure switch, which activates and deactivates the water valve.

    2/10/2014 · Construction
    Shallow foundations are the most commonly designed and constructed structural foundation system. As opposed to deep foundations where structural loads are transferred to subsurface layers or multiple depth ranges, shallow foundations transfer loads to the earth (soil) relatively near to the ground surface. Some examples of shallow foundations include building components often seen in residential construction such as spread footings, continuous foundation walls and footings, slab-on-grade foundations, and mat-slab foundations.

    1/9/2014 · Construction
    After a tornado event, devastation and destruction are found along the tornado path. Due to the wood-framed construction predominant in Texas and Oklahoma, extensive damage to a house can occur. But how do you know whether visible cracks in the Sheetrock or brick finishes are just cosmetic damage or the signs of structural failure?

    12/10/2013 · Fires & Explosions
    Automatic fire suppression systems are by far the most effective and safest means of preventing extensive fire damage and saving lives. For this discussion, we will touch on automatic sprinkler systems (building systems) and kitchen hood suppression systems. These systems range from very simple to extremely complex.

    10/23/2013 · Construction
    Summertime rolls around and people start seeing condensation on ductwork. Their first thought is that something is wrong with their air conditioner. Actually, sweating ducts have several causes. Very few are attributable to defective air conditioners.

    10/4/2013 · Engineering
    In urban and suburban areas, stormwater systems are found everywhere. From surface waterways, such as rivers, streams, and ditches, to subsurface drainage systems, such as storm sewers and culverts, stormwater systems are as ubiquitous as concrete, which is one of the reasons they are so important (Figure 1). Impervious surfaces like concrete, pavement, and roofs prevent stormwater from naturally absorbing into the ground, and the resulting runoff can cause flooding, erosion, and subsequent structural damage.

    For many years, the fire investigation industry has seen numerous fires involving livestock buildings. These fires are often high profile, especially when masses of animals are lost or injured. Many times these losses are in older structures with neglected electrical and/or heating systems. Given the interior environment, corrosion and degradation to electrical and heating components are common.

    8/16/2013 · Construction
    Cupping, buckling, and crowning are three common problems encountered in wood flooring (flooring). These problems are caused by a combination of the normal material characteristics of the flooring and improper installation of the flooring.

    7/31/2013 · Waterproofing
    While shovels, snowblowers, plows, and deicing agents are used to clear snow and ice from driveways and sidewalks during the winter, removing frozen precipitation from the roof of a house is a bit more challenging. As snow and ice piles up on the roof and subsequently thaws out, the melt-water can sometimes result in damage to the interior of the structure.

    7/15/2013 · Construction
    "Hail has damaged my concrete driveway!" How many times have you heard this claim? A homeowner whose house has experienced a recent severe hailstorm starts to notice things they never noticed before around their house.

    A Donan fire investigator uses many techniques in order to determine the origin and cause of a fire. Chief among these are the investigator's observations of the scene and the conditions surrounding the scene.

    In this age of high energy costs, the price of heating the house will increase. People will be searching for alternate sources to heat their houses.

    4/24/2013 · Construction
    In our October 2010 newsletter, Bob Whelan, P.E., discussed how to approach a roof hail study by using the scientific method. In summary, one should perform a collateral study of the property, or neighboring properties, to gather information about the particular hailstorm in question.

    3/21/2013 · Construction
    Whether to build a residence on a concrete slab or conventional crawlspace foundation is a common decision homeowners must make.

    2/13/2013 · Construction
    By: DONAN
    Is construction vibration just an annoyance, or does it have the potential to cause aesthetic and structural damage to nearby structures?

    1/7/2013 · Construction
    Attic ventilation problems can cause elevated relative humidity in an unheated, residential attic. Elevated relative humidity in the attic can promote mold growth and increase the moisture content in the wood framing to a level that promotes fungal growth and rotting.

    11/30/2012 · Failure Analysis
    Every year, Donan Engineering is asked to look at dozens of basement walls that have failed. A wall is determined to have "failed" when the structural integrity is compromised - such as with the development of a horizontal or vertical crack.

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    Michael P. Schuller, PE
    David B. Woodham, PE
    2619 Spruce Street
    Boulder CO 80302
    USA
    phone: 303-444-3620
    fax: 303-444-3239
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    Atkinson-Noland & Associates, Inc. (ANA) has provided structural engineering services for federal, state, and private organizations since its founding in 1975. The unique organization of the firm strives to balance a commitment to innovative research and development goals with direct application to problems in the field. The experience and education of their professional and support staff provides a strong capability for handling difficult and challenging material and structural engineering problems. Through ongoing research and practice, the firm has established itself as one of the foremost international authorities on both historic and modern masonry structural systems.

    Atkinson-Noland & Associates provides forensic engineering services for the evaluation and condition assessment of existing and new structures. Their expertise in support of forensic studies, includes evaluation of structural distress and failure, establishment of causes, recommendations for remedial action, and litigation support. Several ANA engineers have extensive experience in providing expert services in a variety of construction litigation areas.

    Litigation Support Experience:
    • Masonry Expertise
    • Waterproofing / Moisture Intrusion
    • Brick and Concrete Masonry
    • Cast Stone and Reinforced Concrete
    • Adhered Veneer
    • Slip-Fall Claims
  • Cracking and Spalling
  • Structural Failure Analysis
  • Metal Corrosion
  • Material Durability and Defects
  • Differential Foundation Movement
  • Design Standard of Care
  • ANA prepares high-quality expert reports, and we have experience in deposition and courtroom testimony.

    View Atkinson Noland's Consulting Profile.
    10/14/2014 · Construction
    Atkinson-Noland & Associates worked with Bridge Diagnostic, Inc. to evaluate the performance of the historic Ames Street Bridge in Dedham, Massachusetts during the strengthening phase of the structure. Live load tests were conducted on the bridge before and after strengthening to evaluate the efficiency of the selected rehabilitation method. Displacement and strain were monitored at several critical locations along the arch barrels using Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LVDT) displacement sensors and surface - mount strain transducers. A finite element study was performed to understand the complex behavior of the multi-span masonry arch bridge. A long-term monitoring system was installed to evaluate the bridge behavior over time

    8/27/2014 · Construction
    The church was built in 1917 of concrete masonry blocks that were reportedly cast on site by members of the church. The main problem with the church exterior is the delamination of the exterior skin of the concrete block.

    7/22/2014 · Construction
    Constructed in 1934, the "Old Senior Hall" building was built with a structural steel frame, concrete and gypsteel floors and roof, and a reinforced concrete foundation. The exterior walls were built using a brick masonry façade over a clay tile backup with limestone sills, coping, and accents. Active corrosion of main structural members was discovered in the late 1990's, and a plan was developed to renovate the building to address structural concerns. Atkinson - Noland conducted a full exterior condition survey, including use of nondestructive tests to identify the extent of steel corrosion, evaluate masonry performance, and identify potential repair items. Results of this study were used to plan repairs and any necessary strengthening.

    6/10/2014 · Engineering
    The Health Center building on the Milton Hershey School campus was designed in 1932 as load-bearing masonry construction with steel framing used to support floor and roof loads and loose steel lintels spanning over window and door openings. Atkinson-Noland & Associates was retained to conduct an investigation of the exterior load-bearing masonry walls and structural steel framing for the purpose of identifying typical as-built conditions as well as the locations and severity of any deterioration.

    The 16th Street Mall in downtown Denver, Colorado is a pedestrian and transit mall that extends for more than a mile along 16th Street connecting people to major businesses, hotels, restaurants, and retail. Recently, the street mall pavers have experienced a substantial number of loose and cracked granite pavers. Atkinson-Noland & Associates conducted an extensive investigation at the 16th Street Mall granite tile pavers to determine the causes of distress in the paving system. We also helped develop appropriate solutions to paver debonding, slip-resistance, aesthetics, and maintenance.

    4/4/2014 · Construction
    Atkinson-Noland & Associates was a principal investigator on a three-year project evaluating different techniques for repair and retrofit of unreinforced masonry structures. Old masonry construction was simulated in the laboratory, and the test specimens were strengthened by installation of internal reinforcement or repaired by grout injection.

    2/26/2014 · Construction
    A six-story condominium building was constructed using load-bearing, concrete masonry with a clay brick masonry veneer. Specifications required that the collar joint be filled during construction; however, the contractor built the masonry without grouting the collar joint. Subsequent negotiation determined that the masonry must be reconstructed with a filled collar joint.

    1/23/2014 · Materials
    Right: Construction began on the Piedras Blancas Light Station in 1874. The site now includes two of the original historic structures-a lighthouse building completed in 1875 and a fog signal building completed in 1906. The lighthouse building was originally 115 feet tall, including a first-order Fresnel lens manufactured in Paris, France.

    12/17/2013 · Materials
    A two-story masonry building in the historical district of Cripple Creek, Colorado was assessed to determine its present condition. The building was to be retrofitted as a casino but was suffering from over 100 years of weathering in a severe climate and recent neglect.