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Exercise Physiology Expert Witnesses

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James S. Skinner, PhD
Professor Emeritus
88 Gasga Court
Brevard NC 28712
phone: 828-877-6350
James Skinner, PhD specializes in the field of Exercise Physiology and is a Professor Emeritus, Department of Kinesiology at Indiana University. A former president of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), he is one of five investigators of the HERITAGE Family Study on the role of genetics in the response of cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk factors after training. He received the 2014 ACSM Honor Award, the highest award in his field. In 2011, he received the Doctor Honoris Causa from Semmelweis University in Budapest, Hungary.

Dr. Skinner is an expert in the areas of Exercise Physiology, Exercise, Fitness, Personal Training, Kinesiology and Sports Medicine. He has investigated the relationships between exercise, training, genetics, and health for over 50 years and has lectured in English, French, German and Spanish about these relationships in 60 countries.

Dr. Skinner has been an expert witness for plaintiffs and defendants in cases involving:
  • Patent Infringement
  • Injury while Exercising at Health clubs or High School
  • Prisoner Rights to Exercise
  • Safety of Exercise Equipment
He has given depositions and has written reports for attorneys. Testimony has been limited as cases were usually settled out of court.

View Dr. Skinner's Consulting Profile.
Many health clubs and personal trainers test clients to evaluate their fitness, prescribe training programs and evaluate the effects of an exercise program to see if there has been progress. Thus, testing is an important part of their service.

There are presently no established national standards or laws about qualifications to be a personal trainer. As a result, people who work in health and fitness clubs have a wide variety of educational and professional backgrounds. There are "personal trainers" with no formal courses in physical education, exercise science or other related university degrees. If they want to be a certified personal trainer, there are online, mail-order certificates that require only payment to obtain a certificate to put on the wall. Some of these "certifying agencies" do not require an examination to test the knowledge of the applicants.

A severe personal injury occurred as a 70-year-old client in a health club fell and broke his arm while doing an exercise to improve his balance. The injured client was the plaintiff in a suit in which the personal trainer was named as the defendant. I assisted the attorney representing the plaintiff.

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TM McLellan Research Inc.
Tom M. McLellan, PhD
25 Dorman Drive
Stouffville Ontario L4A8A7
phone: 905-642-0659
Tom M. McLellan, Phd, is an Exercise and Environmental Physiologist whose expertise is in understanding the limitations of working in Protective Clothing, as well as developing strategies to Optimize Physical and Cognitive Performance During Sustained Operations.

Consulting / Litigation Support - Dr. McLellan works as a consultant researching and writing articles for clients in the United States and Canada’s Department of Defense. He also provides service as an expert consultant for legal firms and as an expert witness for the effects of caffeine in energy drinks. Projects include research support to the US Army, University of Ottawa, and Defence R&D Canada.

Dr. McLellan's areas of expertise include:

Exercise Physiology:
  • Respiratory Physiology
  • Acid-Base Regulation
  • Blood Lactate Response
  • Ergogenic Aids
  • Nutritional Supplements
  • Immuno-inflammatory Response to Acute and Chronic Stress
Heat Strain in Protective Clothing:
  • Aerobic Fitness
  • Heat Acclimation
  • Hydration
  • Gender
  • Menstrual Cycle
  • Body Composition
  • Work / Rest Cycles
Background Experience - Dr. McLellan worked as a Defense Scientist at Defence R&D Canada in Toronto for 27 years before retiring from the Public Service in 2012. Dr. McLellan’s research expertise evolved during the original Gulf War in 1991 when the Allied Forces were in need of evidence-based recommendations for operating in the extreme environments of the Middle East while wearing Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical (NBC) Protective Clothing.

Dr. McLellan conducted numerous laboratory trials to study the influence of fitness, hydration, heat acclimation, sex, circadian rhythm, body composition, microclimate cooling, metabolic rate and the environment on heat tolerance while wearing the NBC clothing. His research led to work and rest guidelines for Canadian Forces personnel and other NATO Forces wearing the protective clothing. In addition, he was contacted and subsequently developed similar guidelines for the Toronto Fire Service and other Fire Services across Ontario, which led to a citation award from the Toronto Fire Service in 2004.

Dr. McLellan also established an expertise on the use of caffeine during sustained military operations to maintain physical and cognitive performance during these overnight clandestine operations that provide little opportunity for sleep. Together with military scientists in the United States and New Zealand several evidence-based field trials were conducted with Special Forces personnel to document the benefits of using a caffeinated gum during overnight periods of sleep loss. The findings led to the production of Stay Alert gum for use by deployed service personnel.

Author / Educator - Dr. McLellan has published over 150 peer-reviewed scientific articles and government reports. Dr. McLellan was presented with an achievement award for outstanding collaborative research within the international community of military scientists four times over his career. He held adjunct appointments at York University in Toronto, was a full professor at the University of Toronto and currently holds an adjunct appointment at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology in Oshawa, Ontario. He also served as an Associate Editor of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise for 7 years.
12/15/2014 · Exercise & Fitness
Energy drinks (EDs) contain caffeine and are a new, popular category of beverage. It has been suggested that EDs enhance physical and cognitive performance; however, it is unclear whether the claimed benefits are attributable to components other than caffeine. A typical 235 mL ED provides between 40 and 250 mg of caffeine, equating to doses that improve cognitive and, at the higher levels, physical performance. EDs often contain taurine, guaraná, ginseng, glucuronolactone, B-vitamins, and other compounds. A literature search using PubMed, Psych Info, and Google Scholar identified 32 articles that examined the effects of ED ingredients alone and/or in combination with caffeine on physical or cognitive performance.

In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals who wear PPC often work in uncompensable heat stress conditions where body heat storage continues to rise and the risk of heat injury is greatly enhanced.

" is proud to announce new member, Dr. Tom M. McLellan. With 30 years of experience in Exercise and Environmental Physiology, Dr. McLellan is available as an expert witness and consultant in matters relating to exercise physiology and heat strain in protective clothing."