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Deposition Designation Station

Ice Rescue / Survival / Drowning Expert Witnesses

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Lifesaving Resources, LLC
Consultant. Aquatics Safety & Water Rescue
P.O. Box 3006
3 Mills Rd.
Kennebunkport ME 04046
phone: 207-967-8614
Gerald M. Dworkin is a professional Aquatics Safety & Water Rescue Consultant for Lifesaving Resources Inc. He has an extensive background in Aquatics Safety, Lifeguard Training and Operations, Water Rescue & Swiftwater Rescue, Ice Rescue & Cold Water Survival, Emergency Medical Services, and Public Safety and Rescue. Along with several textbooks, he has written and published over 40 articles, and has consulted in numerous drowning and aquatic injury litigation cases as both a Plaintiff and Defense Expert Witness.

Expert Witness Services
As an expert witness, Mr. Dworkin evaluates the Standard of Care as it pertains to Incident Prevention, Victim Recognition, and Emergency Management and provides accident reconstruction, depositions, written reports, and courtroom testimony.

His Areas of Expertise Include:
  • Lifesaving, Lifeguarding and Aquatics Safety
  • Water Rescue, Swiftwater Rescue, and Ice Rescue
  • CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)
  • Basic Life Support
  • Drowning and Aquatic Injury Prevention and Emergency Management
  • Lifeguard Training and Operations
Based on our research of ice rescue incidents and fatalities during the years 2006 & 2007, approximately 85% of the incidents were initiated as a result of humans venturing out onto the ice to rescue a domestic animal. The purpose of this article is three-fold. First, we need to educate the public about the need to control their pets and to prevent them from going out onto the ice because no ice should ever be considered as being "safe ice". Second, we need to also educate the public to call 911, rather than to make an attempt to rescue their pets that have fallen through the ice. And, third, First Responder agencies and their personnel need to be trained and equipped to properly, effectively, and safely respond to domestic animal rescues on and through the ice.

In February 2004, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) published NFPA 1670: Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents. The purpose of this standard is to minimize threats to rescuers while conducting operations at technical SAR incidents, and the standard deals specifically with identifying and establishing levels of functional capability for conducting technical rescue operations safely and effectively. Although these standards were designed for all types of Technical Rescue operations, they also address water and ice rescue operations.

10/28/2014 · Aquatics Safety
On July 13, 2004, a 55-year-old man collapsed in the Medina (Ohio) Aquatic and Fitness Center. The aquatic manager for the city, Darlene Donkin, responded and assessed him to be in cardiac arrest. Although Donkin was a CPR instructor and taught more than 100 classes on the subject, she had never actually performed it in a life-and-death situation prior to this incident.

9/16/2014 · Aquatics Safety
The following incidents and places, as well as the circumstances surrounding them, are fictional. On the Scene Dispatch at 16:04 hrs: KGT-597 to Rescue 15, respond to Bakersville Pond off Cemetery Island for a report of a dog through the ice, approximately 100 yards from shore.

8/7/2014 · Aquatics Safety
DALLAS, April 1 - Chest compressions alone, or Hands-Only Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), can save lives and can be used to help an adult who suddenly collapses, according to a new American Heart Association scientific statement.

7/2/2014 · Aquatics Safety
Shallow Water Blackout (SWB) vs. Hyperventilation-Induced Blackout (HIB)....

TWO BOYS, age 11, are ice skating at a local pond. Suddenly, the ice cracks and one boy falls through into 34 degree Fahrenheit water. His friend runs to his aid, and potential tragedy grows as the second boy is pulled into the ice cold water by the panic stricken child already in the water. Unless help is immediately available, both boys will perish within a few minutes, either from drowning or hypothermia (decreased body temperature).

Based on a 1961 study at Williamston, MI, conducted by the Michigan State Police, the Indiana University Health and Safety Department, the Michigan Highway Department, and the American Red Cross, it was estimated that approximately 400 persons lose their lives as a result of being trapped in automobiles that have plunged into the water.

1/24/2014 · Aquatics Safety
Although showing a slight downward trend, U.S. pool-related drownings have see-sawed for the past several years - despite reinforcement of safety messages in the media.

12/19/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Properly recognizing and managing suspected spinal injuries caused by head-first entries into the water require high levels of training. Lifeguards and other water rescue personnel must be able to evaluate the signs and symptoms associated with spinal trauma and the manner in which an injury occurs. The rescuer should assume that a spinal injury exists if the forces causing the trauma were sufficient to damage the spine.

11/14/2013 · Aquatics Safety
In the event a firefighter is suddenly and unexpectedly immersed in deep water while wearing full turnout gear, the firefighter's survival is dependent upon the actions taken during the first critical seconds of the immersion. The incidence of this type of emergency increases when firefighters are fighting apartment fires around a swimming pool, during suppression activities on and around piers and docks, as well as during a fall-through incident in which the firefighter falls through a floor into a basement filled with water.

10/16/2013 · Aquatics Safety
The purpose of this article is to describe the proper use and application of the Stearns Cold Water/ Ice Rescue Suit by Fire, Rescue, and other Public Safety Personnel during cold water and ice rescue incidents. This article has been specifically written to address the prevention of Torso Reflex or Inhalation Response during the rescuer's entry into cold water.

9/25/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Nearly half of all flood related deaths occur in vehicles. Most of these deaths take place when people drive into flooded highway dips or low drainage areas.

8/22/2013 · Aquatics Safety
In 1996, a tragic accident occurred on a soccer field at Northeast Park in the Park Ridge Recreation and Park District in Illinois. After a short rain delay in the game, the skies started clearing and a referee decided to resume play.

Since 1980, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has documented over 18 incidents, including five deaths, involving children between the ages of two and 14 who were injured or died due to body part entrapment involving the drain of a swimming pool, wading pool or spa.

7/18/2013 · Aquatics Safety
As a result of renewed electronic and print media exposure, the Heimlich Controversy has once more reared its head creating a confusing message for lifeguard and other rescue personnel regarding the resuscitation procedures to be used when confronted with a near-drowning resuscitation incident.

6/21/2013 · Aquatics Safety
A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association Task Force on Automatic External Defibrillation

5/29/2013 · Aquatics Safety
All public and semi-public aquatic facilities should be equipped with appropriate spinal immobilization devices (SIDs), in addition to cervical collars, lateral stabilization items (i.e. blankets, towels, sand bags, and so forth), and appropriate immobilization material (i.e. straps and bandages).

4/23/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Because of the major health concerns today, there is a major reluctance among emergency service personnel to perform direct mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing on an unknown victim.

3/20/2013 · Aquatics Safety
For the past three issues, jems has presented a thorough review of spinal immobilization devices that are used in traditional rescue situations.

2/13/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Each year approximately one million people in the United States suffer from acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) of which approximately 700,000 die. About 350,000 of these fatalities occur outside the hospital, usually within two hours after the onset of symptoms of a heart disorder.

11/29/2012 · Aquatics Safety
During an emergency is not when you want to discover that your equipment is incompatible with your EMS service. Avoiding that fate can save a lot, including a life.

10/1/2012 · Aquatics Safety
Torso Reflex, also known as Gasp Reflex , Inhalation Response, or Cold Water Shock, is caused by sudden immersion into water colder than 70 degrees F. Sudden immersion into cold water triggers an involuntary reflexive torso gasp that can cause the person to aspirate water into his/her airway and lungs, which can lead to laryngospasm, disorientation, panic, and the loss of any physical ability to swim or remain afloat.

3/19/2012 · Aquatics Safety
I’ve always advocated the need for aquatics facilities to collaborate and coordinate lifeguard and water rescue training and emergency operations with community fire, rescue, emergency medical services (EMS) and law enforcement agencies.

12/20/2011 · Aquatics Safety
For aquatics facilities to effectively integrate rescue and safety services with those of the local fire and rescue agencies and emergency medical services (EMS), it's imperative that all agencies establish collaborative agreements and cooperative training programs.

10/7/2011 · Aquatics Safety
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) establishes standards for the Fire and Rescue industry.

9/25/2009 · Aquatics Safety
In February 2004, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) published NFPA 1670: Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue (SAR) Incidents. The purpose of this standard was to minimize threats to rescuers while conducting operations at technical SAR incidents.

9/24/2009 · Aquatics Safety
Each year, there are approximately 1,500 incidents and 600 deaths occur involving vehicles that have gone off the road and plummeted into the water. Therefore, the public needs to plan for these types of emergencies by (A) rehearsing the steps necessary for a successful self-rescue from a vehicle in the water, and (B) having the rescue/escape tools readily available for use during this type of emergency situation.

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David Stewart Smith, Commander, USCG (RET)
12367 N. Country Club Dr.
Charlevoix MI 49720
phone: 231-547-0172
fax: 231-547-0172 (Please Call First)
Smith Aquatic Safety Service (SASS) was created in 1981, upon Dr. Smith's retirement from 25 year's service in the U.S. Coast Guard, to provide aquatic safety training. At retirement Dr. Smith was Chief, 2nd Coast Guard Boating Safety Division, St. Louis, MO, responsible for all federal boating safety activities in 15 primary states.

In 1981 Dr. Smith first testified as an expert. Both aspects of SASS have grown markedly, with Dr. Smith being retained in hundreds of legal cases, for plaintiff and defense while also training thousands of aquatic safety/rescue personnel. He has been qualified in numerous state and federal court cases as a boating accident reconstructionist.

SASS provides consultation and related services to law firms in aquatics cases, plus water rescue and boating safety training seminars for fire, police, lifeguarding and EMS providers throughout North America.
David Smith, PhD
Text for emergency rescue personnel on the theory and practical techniques of water rescue. Includes survival of the rescuer, as well as the victim. Illustrated.
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Dr. Alan Steinman,MPH
Consultant in Environmental Medicine
4720 Cooper Point Rd NW
Olympia WA 98502
phone: 253-229-4088
fax: 360-866-0715
Dr. Alan Steinman is an expert in Maritime Medicine with particular emphasis on Sea-Survival, Drowning and Hypothermia. He has served as Surgeon General and Director of Health and Safety for the U.S. Coast Guard, as medical advisor to the Coast Guard's Chief of Operations, and as rescue physician on numerous Coast Guard search and rescue missions. He has an international reputation in hypothermia and cold-water survival.

Dr. Steinman is widely published in the field of environmental medicine, including a chapter on immersion hypothermia in a leading textbook of emergency medicine. His research into human cold-water immersion and hypothermia merited the prestigious Arnold D. Tuttle Award from the Aerospace Medicine Association. The results from his human hypothermia studies contributed to the basis of current U.S. Coast Guard cold-water survival time charts.

Dr. Steinman is Board Certified in Occupational Medicine; he is a Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine. His Doctor of Medicine degree is from the Stanford School of Medicine; his post-graduate medical training was at the Mayo Graduate School of Medicine and the University of Washington School of Medicine.

Dr. Steinman has experience in both federal and state courts serving as an expert witness in numerous cases involving sea-survival, drowning, and hypothermia.
7/4/2002 · Aquatics Safety
Immersion in cold water is a hazard for anyone who participates in recreational, commercial or military activities in the oceans, lakes, and streams of all but the tropical regions of the world. Recreational aquatic activities include swimming, fishing, sailing, power-boating, ocean kayaking, white-water rafting, canoeing, ocean-surfing, wind-surfing, water-skiing, diving, hunting and the use of personal water craft

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Jeremy Swenson, CSP
11940 Cartwright Ave.
Grandview MO 64030
phone: 816-564-9131
fax: 816-761-5309
Swenson Consulting offers Snow Removal Expert Witness Services to legal professionals needing assistance with snow and ice removal slip and fall cases. He is a Snow Expert in black ice, sleet, freezing rain, and slick conditions. He is very familiar with the snow and ice removal industry standard operations and practices across the country, and will help determine how this relates to the snow removal agreement or operations in a slip and fall incident or snow related accident.

Principal, Jeremy Swenson, CSP, has satisfied requirements by SIMA (largest nationally recognized snow and ice trade organization-Snow and Ice Management Association) to become a Certified Snow Professional. There are less than 250 CSP’s in the United States Of America. He works with attorneys on defense and plaintiff sides with regards to snow removal, ice treatment and snow removal best practices issues. He works nationwide and will travel.

Swenson Consulting also offers detailed Weather Analysis services and reports for situations surrounding a slip and fall event or accident, and will offer detailed consultation regarding the weather surrounding the slip and fall accident.

Mr. Swenson currently owns and operates Snowmen, one of the largest snow and ice management companies in North America. He is Security Clearanced and trained for onsite snow operations at the IRS Regional Headquarters, FBI Headquarters, Department Of Treasury Buildings, and many types of Airport, Railroad, Organ Transplant Centers, and Medical facilities. After overseeing thousands of commercial accounts over the years, he has worked through most every issue that is relevant to a snow removal operation in the industry.

View Jeremy Swenson's Expert Witness Profile.