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Swimming Parks & Recreation Expert Witnesses

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Richard A. Young, CPO
20430 ½ Orchard Rd.
Saratoga CA 95070
phone: 800-660-5202
fax: 408-867-1216
Richard A. Young, is an Aquatics Safety expert with over 30 years of public, institutional, commercial, water park, and high-end residential pool experience. A California State Contractor, his background includes aquatic facility water treatment planning, design, equipment sales, installation, and troubleshooting.

Certifications and Affiliations
  • Certified Pool Operator (National Swimming Pool Foundation)
  • Aquatic Facility Operator Instructor (National Recreation and Park Association)
  • Technical Adviser for the Professional Pool Operators of America
  • Member, National Association of Aquatic Consultants
  • Member, National Park and Recreation Association
  • Member, California Pool and Spa Association
Mr. Young teaches one of the two national professional pool operators courses, develops problem solving pool mechanical equipment, and speaks at state and national conferences on pool safety and filtration systems. He has published over 30 writings in industry texts and periodicals, and is the managing editor of the 6th edition of the Aquatic Facility Operator's Manual for the National Recreation and Park Association "AFO" course.

Litigation Support - Richard Young is uniquely qualified to provides expert witness services to counsel representing both Plaintiff and Defendant. He has completed mechanical work at over 500+ public, institutional and large commercial aquatic facilities. This work included total mechanical renovations comprised of recirculation, filtration, heating, chemical control and chemical feed systems.

Services Include:
  • Pool Design and Construction Review
  • Mechanical Water Systems Analysis
  • Accident and Drowning Analysis
  • Pool Assessments and Reports
Recent Swimming Pool-Related Cases:
  • Patron Injuries
  • Operator Injuries
  • Drowning, Near Drowning
  • Pool Related Accidents
  • Construction Disputes
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Lifesaving Resources, LLC
Consultant. Aquatics Safety & Water Rescue
P.O. Box 3006
3 Mills Rd.
Kennebunkport ME 04046
phone: 207-967-8614
Gerald M. Dworkin is a professional Aquatics Safety & Water Rescue Consultant for Lifesaving Resources Inc. He has an extensive background in Aquatics Safety, Lifeguard Training and Operations, Water Rescue & Swiftwater Rescue, Ice Rescue & Cold Water Survival, Emergency Medical Services, and Public Safety and Rescue. Along with several textbooks, he has written and published over 40 articles, and has consulted in numerous drowning and aquatic injury litigation cases as both a Plaintiff and Defense Expert Witness.

Expert Witness Services
As an expert witness, Mr. Dworkin evaluates the Standard of Care as it pertains to Incident Prevention, Victim Recognition, and Emergency Management and provides accident reconstruction, depositions, written reports, and courtroom testimony.

His Areas of Expertise Include:
  • Lifesaving, Lifeguarding and Aquatics Safety
  • Water Rescue, Swiftwater Rescue, and Ice Rescue
  • CPR (Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation)
  • Basic Life Support
  • Drowning and Aquatic Injury Prevention and Emergency Management
  • Lifeguard Training and Operations
Based on our research of ice rescue incidents and fatalities during the years 2006 & 2007, approximately 85% of the incidents were initiated as a result of humans venturing out onto the ice to rescue a domestic animal. The purpose of this article is three-fold. First, we need to educate the public about the need to control their pets and to prevent them from going out onto the ice because no ice should ever be considered as being "safe ice". Second, we need to also educate the public to call 911, rather than to make an attempt to rescue their pets that have fallen through the ice. And, third, First Responder agencies and their personnel need to be trained and equipped to properly, effectively, and safely respond to domestic animal rescues on and through the ice.

In February 2004, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) published NFPA 1670: Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue Incidents. The purpose of this standard is to minimize threats to rescuers while conducting operations at technical SAR incidents, and the standard deals specifically with identifying and establishing levels of functional capability for conducting technical rescue operations safely and effectively. Although these standards were designed for all types of Technical Rescue operations, they also address water and ice rescue operations.

10/28/2014 · Aquatics Safety
On July 13, 2004, a 55-year-old man collapsed in the Medina (Ohio) Aquatic and Fitness Center. The aquatic manager for the city, Darlene Donkin, responded and assessed him to be in cardiac arrest. Although Donkin was a CPR instructor and taught more than 100 classes on the subject, she had never actually performed it in a life-and-death situation prior to this incident.

9/16/2014 · Aquatics Safety
The following incidents and places, as well as the circumstances surrounding them, are fictional. On the Scene Dispatch at 16:04 hrs: KGT-597 to Rescue 15, respond to Bakersville Pond off Cemetery Island for a report of a dog through the ice, approximately 100 yards from shore.

8/7/2014 · Aquatics Safety
DALLAS, April 1 - Chest compressions alone, or Hands-Only Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR), can save lives and can be used to help an adult who suddenly collapses, according to a new American Heart Association scientific statement.

7/2/2014 · Aquatics Safety
Shallow Water Blackout (SWB) vs. Hyperventilation-Induced Blackout (HIB)....

TWO BOYS, age 11, are ice skating at a local pond. Suddenly, the ice cracks and one boy falls through into 34 degree Fahrenheit water. His friend runs to his aid, and potential tragedy grows as the second boy is pulled into the ice cold water by the panic stricken child already in the water. Unless help is immediately available, both boys will perish within a few minutes, either from drowning or hypothermia (decreased body temperature).

Based on a 1961 study at Williamston, MI, conducted by the Michigan State Police, the Indiana University Health and Safety Department, the Michigan Highway Department, and the American Red Cross, it was estimated that approximately 400 persons lose their lives as a result of being trapped in automobiles that have plunged into the water.

1/24/2014 · Aquatics Safety
Although showing a slight downward trend, U.S. pool-related drownings have see-sawed for the past several years - despite reinforcement of safety messages in the media.

12/19/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Properly recognizing and managing suspected spinal injuries caused by head-first entries into the water require high levels of training. Lifeguards and other water rescue personnel must be able to evaluate the signs and symptoms associated with spinal trauma and the manner in which an injury occurs. The rescuer should assume that a spinal injury exists if the forces causing the trauma were sufficient to damage the spine.

11/14/2013 · Aquatics Safety
In the event a firefighter is suddenly and unexpectedly immersed in deep water while wearing full turnout gear, the firefighter's survival is dependent upon the actions taken during the first critical seconds of the immersion. The incidence of this type of emergency increases when firefighters are fighting apartment fires around a swimming pool, during suppression activities on and around piers and docks, as well as during a fall-through incident in which the firefighter falls through a floor into a basement filled with water.

10/16/2013 · Aquatics Safety
The purpose of this article is to describe the proper use and application of the Stearns Cold Water/ Ice Rescue Suit by Fire, Rescue, and other Public Safety Personnel during cold water and ice rescue incidents. This article has been specifically written to address the prevention of Torso Reflex or Inhalation Response during the rescuer's entry into cold water.

9/25/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Nearly half of all flood related deaths occur in vehicles. Most of these deaths take place when people drive into flooded highway dips or low drainage areas.

8/22/2013 · Aquatics Safety
In 1996, a tragic accident occurred on a soccer field at Northeast Park in the Park Ridge Recreation and Park District in Illinois. After a short rain delay in the game, the skies started clearing and a referee decided to resume play.

Since 1980, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has documented over 18 incidents, including five deaths, involving children between the ages of two and 14 who were injured or died due to body part entrapment involving the drain of a swimming pool, wading pool or spa.

7/18/2013 · Aquatics Safety
As a result of renewed electronic and print media exposure, the Heimlich Controversy has once more reared its head creating a confusing message for lifeguard and other rescue personnel regarding the resuscitation procedures to be used when confronted with a near-drowning resuscitation incident.

6/21/2013 · Aquatics Safety
A Statement for Healthcare Professionals From the American Heart Association Task Force on Automatic External Defibrillation

5/29/2013 · Aquatics Safety
All public and semi-public aquatic facilities should be equipped with appropriate spinal immobilization devices (SIDs), in addition to cervical collars, lateral stabilization items (i.e. blankets, towels, sand bags, and so forth), and appropriate immobilization material (i.e. straps and bandages).

4/23/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Because of the major health concerns today, there is a major reluctance among emergency service personnel to perform direct mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing on an unknown victim.

3/20/2013 · Aquatics Safety
For the past three issues, jems has presented a thorough review of spinal immobilization devices that are used in traditional rescue situations.

2/13/2013 · Aquatics Safety
Each year approximately one million people in the United States suffer from acute myocardial infarction (heart attack) of which approximately 700,000 die. About 350,000 of these fatalities occur outside the hospital, usually within two hours after the onset of symptoms of a heart disorder.

11/29/2012 · Aquatics Safety
During an emergency is not when you want to discover that your equipment is incompatible with your EMS service. Avoiding that fate can save a lot, including a life.

10/1/2012 · Aquatics Safety
Torso Reflex, also known as Gasp Reflex , Inhalation Response, or Cold Water Shock, is caused by sudden immersion into water colder than 70 degrees F. Sudden immersion into cold water triggers an involuntary reflexive torso gasp that can cause the person to aspirate water into his/her airway and lungs, which can lead to laryngospasm, disorientation, panic, and the loss of any physical ability to swim or remain afloat.

3/19/2012 · Aquatics Safety
I’ve always advocated the need for aquatics facilities to collaborate and coordinate lifeguard and water rescue training and emergency operations with community fire, rescue, emergency medical services (EMS) and law enforcement agencies.

12/20/2011 · Aquatics Safety
For aquatics facilities to effectively integrate rescue and safety services with those of the local fire and rescue agencies and emergency medical services (EMS), it's imperative that all agencies establish collaborative agreements and cooperative training programs.

10/7/2011 · Aquatics Safety
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) establishes standards for the Fire and Rescue industry.

9/25/2009 · Aquatics Safety
In February 2004, the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) published NFPA 1670: Standard on Operations and Training for Technical Search and Rescue (SAR) Incidents. The purpose of this standard was to minimize threats to rescuers while conducting operations at technical SAR incidents.

9/24/2009 · Aquatics Safety
Each year, there are approximately 1,500 incidents and 600 deaths occur involving vehicles that have gone off the road and plummeted into the water. Therefore, the public needs to plan for these types of emergencies by (A) rehearsing the steps necessary for a successful self-rescue from a vehicle in the water, and (B) having the rescue/escape tools readily available for use during this type of emergency situation.

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Leonard K. Lucenko, PhD, ASSE, ACFEI, LLC
Leonard Lucenko
Director, Safety Education
PO Box 2625, Bonita Springs, FL 34133 or
PO Box 70, Lake Ariel, PA 18436
ALL States
phone: 239-992-0119 or 570-698-1161 or 908-797-0848
fax: 239-992-5548
Leonard K. Lucenko, PhD, Sport and Recreation Expert, is an Adjunct Professor at Montclair State. A prolific speaker, he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses on Risk Management in Sports and Recreation. He is a certified teacher, coach, athletic director, dean of students and international speaker on sports and recreation safety. Dr. Lucenko has qualified for Testimony and Consultation in 40 State and Federal Courts in Plaintiff and Defense cases.

Areas of Expertise
  • Aquatics
  • Pool Safety
  • Supervision
  • Equipment
  • Children's Camps
  • Certified Playground Inspector
  • Football
  • Roller Skating
  • Ice Hockey
  • Cheerleading
  • Fitness and Health Clubs
  • Soccer
  • Baseball/Softball
  • Wrestling
  • Golf
  • Physical Education
  • Amusements
  • Waterparks
  • Recreation Facility Safety
  • Coaching, on the youth level such as the Reviving Baseball in the Inner Cities program, (RBI) sponsored by Major League Baseball, is one of the crucial elements in the conduct of safe play in baseball/softball. The coach has a significant impact on risk management and safety and must be educated and convinced to make safety a priority in team management.

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    Trevor A. Sherwood, II
    68 Edwards Road
    Brick NJ 08723
    phone: 732-451-1040
    fax: 732-451-1630
    Pool Operation Management (POM), founded in 1980, is an Aquatics Safety and Risk Management firm that is nationally recognized for pool consulting services including liability and risk management, compliance with governmental regulations, facility operations, mechanical questions, and personnel requirements.

    Trevor A. Sherwood II has extensive experience in the swimming pool industry, with over 20 years of experience in service, consulting, training and education, code regulations, development and expert witness. He has contributed to aquatic textbooks and related articles, influenced State Recreational Bathing Codes and national conference presentations. He has provided leadership to such organizations as National Swimming Pool Foundation (NSPF), Northeast Spa & Pool Association (NESPA), Community Association Institute - New Jersey Chapter (CAI), New Jersey Apartment Association (NJAA), New Jersey Parks and Recreation Society (NJPRS), Pennsylvania Parks and Recreation Society (PRPS) and New Jersey and Massachusetts Health Departments. He has been retained by attorneys for both Plaintiff and Defense.

    Mr. Sherwood's extensive swimming pool consulting experience qualifies him to appear in court on the following matters:
    • Swimming Pool Deaths - Drowning, Diving
    • Chemical Exposure
    • Chemical Fires / Hazards
    • Pool Paint
  • Pool Equipment Patent Infringement
  • Pool Light Electrocution
  • Deck and Pool Surfacing
  • Fitness Club Hot Tub Issues
  • View Consulting Profile.
    7/13/2015 · Aquatics Safety
    Is your pool putting your patrons in harm way? When getting your pool ready for the upcoming summer season, you need to make sure your pool meets state requirements for safety and operation. Since New Jersey has one of the thorough bathing codes in the nation and outbreaks of recreational water illnesses are occurring every year, everyone needs to be sure that their pool is up to code for a safe swimming season.

    Everyone knows when you buy a new home that it needs to be inspected by a professional home inspector. But, what should you do about the pool in the backyard? Unbeknownst to many homebuyers and sellers, the pool needs a professional inspection in order to make sure that it is safe enough for your family to enjoy.

    As the colder weather arrives, most people are looking forward to colorful foliage and preparing for the holidays. Those operators with seasonal facilities have likely already closed them, or will be closing them for the season shortly. Indoor facilities may even see a decline in patronage due to fewer people traveling during the colder months.

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    David Stewart Smith, Commander, USCG (RET)
    12367 N. Country Club Dr.
    Charlevoix MI 49720
    phone: 231-547-0172
    fax: 231-547-0172 (Please Call First)
    Smith Aquatic Safety Service (SASS) was created in 1981, upon Dr. Smith's retirement from 25 year's service in the U.S. Coast Guard, to provide aquatic safety training. At retirement Dr. Smith was Chief, 2nd Coast Guard Boating Safety Division, St. Louis, MO, responsible for all federal boating safety activities in 15 primary states.

    In 1981 Dr. Smith first testified as an expert. Both aspects of SASS have grown markedly, with Dr. Smith being retained in hundreds of legal cases, for plaintiff and defense while also training thousands of aquatic safety/rescue personnel. He has been qualified in numerous state and federal court cases as a boating accident reconstructionist.

    SASS provides consultation and related services to law firms in aquatics cases, plus water rescue and boating safety training seminars for fire, police, lifeguarding and EMS providers throughout North America.
    David Smith, PhD
    Text for emergency rescue personnel on the theory and practical techniques of water rescue. Includes survival of the rescuer, as well as the victim. Illustrated.
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    Robert E. (Bob) Preston
    8906 Brucewood Drive
    North Chesterfield VA 23235
    phone: 800-806-2267
    fax: 804-320-4446
    Robert E. (Bob) Preston has a proven record of providing successful Camp Operations since 1993. His experience is in Fund Raising, Growth, Marketing, and Innovative Programming for Camps in the Mid-Atlantic states and internationally.

    Mr. Preston has directed 8 Scout Camps and 11 National Camping Schools, planned new camp facilities, developed, directed and marketed the Adirondack National High Adventure Area, and obtained the necessary monies for camp expansions while serving as a Council Executive and Area Director in the Northeast Region, BSA.

    Since 2000, Mr. Preston has been a designated expert witness or court appointed receiver, assisting legal professionals in both District and Federal court situations. He has received testimonials from client attorneys in CT, DC, IL, ME, MD, MO, NC, NY, OH, PA, VA, TX, and WY.

    Areas of Expertise:
    • Camp Staff Training Issues
    • Maintenance Concerns
    • Risk Management Mitigation
    • Environmental Challenges
    • Property Management Issues
    • Human Resources
  • Program Design Impacts
  • Aquatics Activities
  • Firearm Safety
  • Child Protection Matters
  • Standards of Care for Campers/Guests
  • American Camp Association Accreditation Deviations
  • View Bob Preston's Consulting Profile.
    " is proud to announce its new member, Robert E. Preston. With over 50 years of experience in Camp Management and Operations, Mr. Preston is available as an expert witness and consultant in matters relating to Camp Safety, Operational Management, Staff Administration and Development, Risk Management Issues, and Programming for Camps in the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic states.":
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    4015 Watters Lane
    Gibsonia PA 15044
    phone: 724-255-7176
    fax: 484-991-1952
    Al Vangura, Jr., MS, CPS, holds an MS in Bioengineering, a BS in Exercise and Sports Science - Biomechanics, and an AS in Mechanical Engineering Technology. Mr. Vangura has over 30 years of product development experience of class I, II, and III medical devices, sports equipment, playgrounds, motor vehicles, appliances, etc. He holds multiple patents and has worked as a machinist for over 10 years.

    Mr. Vangura is a seasoned, hands-on executive engineer with an extensive background and experience in the product development cycle in a variety of settings. He has led cross-functional teams developing Medical Devices for Respironics, Hill-Rom, Alung and CardiacAssist, athletic products for Reebok, Adidas, and the U.S. Olympic Biathlon team. He has also developed Military Aircraft for Sikorsky Aircraft, Boeing Defense and Space and the International Space Station for NASA.

    Litigation Support - Mr. Vangura has participated in forensic engineering evaluations for over 11 years with extensive courtroom experience. He provides forensic evaluations during legal proceedings involving product-related injuries, motor vehicle crashes, and other incidents requiring independent injury evaluation and review. Mr. Vangura has been involved in over 400 biomechanics cases.

    Areas of Specialization:
    • Occupant Biomechanics
    • Walking / Running Biomechanics
    • Trip / Fall Biomechanics
    • Playground Accidents and Safety
    • Sports Equipment Design / Safety
  • Machine Accidents
  • Child Abuse
  • Altercations
  • Medical Devices
  • OSHA, MSHA, FDA, and ADA
  • View Al Vangura's Consulting Profile.