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A car is stopped for a light when it is unexpectedly rear-ended causing little or no damage to either vehicle. Nevertheless, the passengers of the struck vehicle complain of neck, shoulder and back pain. Insurance claim representatives, attorneys, medical, engineering and biomedical experts are then brought in and various conflicting allegations, testimony and opinions are expressed. Insurance literature sources claim that 1/3 of such cases are fraudulent, yet, there is a body of research indicating that low speed impact involving non-damaged vehicles can lead to permanent injury. Do we have a legitimate injury claim on our hands or a situation of fraud? Technology Associates can resolve such matters through scientific analysis.


Questions Answered

We have extensive experience in many aspects of low speed impacts including:
  • Testing and analysis of whiplash
  • Development of software for rear-end collisions based on bumper damage (including SAE publications)
  • Extensive whiplash reference library
  • Simulation of whiplash occupant motion using NHTSA software

Case Examples

Rear-end TMJ Injury:
A woman driver was stopped at a red light when she was struck from behind by another vehicle causing $950 damage to the front car but no visible damage to the rear vehicle. The front driver sustained neck and jaw (TMJ) injuries from the impact. Based on Consumer Reports bumper tests, we showed that the damage was consistent with a 10-14 mph impact, which generated a peak head acceleration of up to 24 g's, consistent with the driver's injuries.

Dr. Irving Ojalvo is Chairman of Technology Associates (, a forensic engineering firm with offices in New York City, Connecticut, and Florida. The firm's technical personnel, all of whom have advanced degrees, perform accident reconstruction involving issues of biomechanics, mechanical, traffic, and human factors engineering.

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