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Deposition Designation Station

Pepper Spray / Mace / Taser Expert Witnesses

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Steven D. Ashley, MS, MLS, MFCI, MUFI, ARM-P, CLS2
Risk Management Professional, Criminal Justice Trainer
Monroe MI USA
phone: 517-548-2275
Steve Ashley Law Enforcement Expert PhotoSteven D. Ashley has over 40 years of experience in Law Enforcement. As a researcher, his primary area of interest is the Use of Force and Control by Police, with an emphasis on Non-lethal Control Methods and Implements.

Mr. Ashley has earned and received certification as a Force Science Analyst (Force Science Institute®), a Master Use of Force Instructor (Smith and Wesson Academy®), a Master Force and Control Instructor (Police Policy Studies Council®), a TASER® Senior Master Instructor (TASER International), and an Associate in Risk Management – Public Entities (Insurance Institute of America®). He has attended over 5,700 hours of advanced police training.

In addition to his 15 years as a full-time, sworn, law enforcement officer, and 12 years as a full-time risk management professional, Mr. Ashley has been a criminal justice trainer for more than 40 years, and has trained thousands of officers, trainers, and managers in police subjects, including Firearms, Driving, Radar, Chemical Munitions, TASER, and Defensive Tactics. A prolific author, writing often for both print and on-line publications, he is a frequent, invited presenter at national and international law enforcement conferences. He also served as an adjunct faculty member at several Michigan colleges, and at the Smith and Wesson Academy.

Litigation Support - Steven Ashley has worked as a law enforcement expert witness since 1995, consulting on over 150 cases, and testifying in many. He specializes in use of force, motor vehicle operation, arrest practices and police & corrections procedural issues. His services are available to counsel representing both Plaintiff and Defendant.

Litigation Support Services:
  • Police Use of Force Consultation
  • Jail & Security Assessments
  • Liability Claims Assistance
  • Public Safety Loss Control
  • Law Enforcement Training
  • Police Procedural Review
  • Information & Research
  • Supervisory Audits
  • Trial Consultation
  • Jury Assistance
  • Police Pursuit Driving Case Analysis
  • Applicant Screening & Assessment
  • Police Deadly Force Consultation
  • Law Enforcement Risk Control
  • Employment Practices Review
  • Policy Review & Development
  • Municipal Risk Management
  • Private Security Audits
  • Firearms and Shooting Case Review
  • Arrest & Custody Practices Analysis
  • View Steven Ashley's Consulting Profile.
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    Dr. Philip P. Hayden, EdD
    Federal Law Enforcement Consultant
    11602 Stonewall Jackson Drive
    Spotslyvania VA 22551
    phone: 540-972-7658
    fax: (540) 972-7659
    Philip HaydenDr. Philip Hayden, EdD, retired Supervisory Special Agent of the FBI, has been certified as an Expert Witness, in both State and Federal courts, in the areas of Use of Force, Law Enforcement Tactics and Training, and Mental Mindset during high-risk situations. Dr. Hayden's background and level of expertise are unlike anyone else's in the Police Use of Force / Special Tactics Expert Witness arena. As a Special Agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation in multiple major metropolitan areas, he has participated in several hundred arrests of violent criminals.

    As a Supervisory Special Agent for the FBI Academy for more than 15 years, Dr. Hayden designed, developed, and implemented the Law Enforcement Training for Safety and Survival Sub-Unit program. As a tactical instructor he has written dozens of articles and instruction manuals for the FBI, such as the implementation of the FBI Deadly Force Policy for Federal Violent Crimes Task Forces, How to Conduct High-Risk Arrests, and Safe Apprehension of Dangerous Criminals.

    Dr. Hayden has testified as an Expert Witness and has been deposed in both criminal and civil cases. He has consulted on cases with the following:
    • U.S. Attorney’s Offices in New York City, NY; District of New Jersey; Washington, DC; El Paso, TX; Portland, OR; Alexandria, VA; Eastern District of Pennsylvania
    • State Attorney’s Offices for the cities of Lafayette, LA; Miami–Dade and Sarasota, FL; Wilmington, DE
    • County Attorney’s Office for Prince Georges County, MD; City Attorney’s Office for Trumbull, CT
    • Defense and Plaintiff Attorneys in Richmond, VA; Washington, DC; Baltimore, MD; Las Vegas, NV; Denver, CO; Kansas City, KS; Pasadena, TX; Birmingham, AL; Minneapolis, MN; Virginia Beach, VA; Lynchburg, VA; Virgin Islands
    • Swedish Defense Ministry in Stockholm, Sweden
    Dr. Hayden has been certified by the FBI as an instructor in Tactical Concepts for:
    • Police Use of Force
    • Law Enforcement Tactics
    • Police Tactical Training
    • Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT)
  • High Risk Arrests
  • Use of Electronic Control Devices
  • Tactical Rappelling
  • Helicopter Tactical Operations
  • Military Awards & Honors - Purple Heart, Vietnamese Cross of Gallantry, Conspicuous Service Cross, Army Commendation for Valor, Bronze Star for Valor, Distinguished Service Cross

    View Consulting Profile.
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    Martinelli & Associates: Justice & Forensic Consultants, Inc.
    Temecula CA 92591
    phone: 951-719-1450
    fax: 951-501-2952
    Dr. Ron Martinelli, Ph.D., BCFT, CFA, CLS, is a former Criminal Justice Training Center Director and current Police / Corrections Practices, Criminal Investigations and Use of Force Instructor Consultant with a unique combination of extensive field experience and academic credentials that attorneys, judges and juries appreciate and commend. He has been representing agency defense and concerned plaintiff clients since 1991.

    Dr. Martinelli serves as chief legal consultant, police practices expert and trial specialist. He has an impressive and diverse law enforcement background in police, corrections, probation and private security practices and training and premises liability. Dr. Martinelli is an experienced police practices expert qualified in Federal and State Courts who specializes in 4th, 8th and 14th Amendment litigation. He is skilled in incident reconstruction, evidence gathering, discovery, forensic legal analysis ans testimony. Dr. Martinelli is also a Board Certified Expert in Forensic Traumatology, an AELE Certified Litigation Specialist in Police/Corrections Practices and a Certified Force Analyst through the Force Science Center, Minnesota State University.

    Dr. Martinelli has been referred to by attorney clients as "the expert's expert." He has a 90% case WIN ratio with over $120 Million saved defending agencies and over $30 Million recovered for plaintiff's since 2004 alone. He provides attorneys, State Attorney General Offices and municipalities with superior consulting and expert witness services in the fields of law enforcement practices, liability, negligence, litigation, criminal prosecution and criminal defense. Police practices and forensic expert to the States of NV, NM, NE, WV, Denver, Miami Beach and numerous municipalities. Forensic expert consultant to CNN Headline News, Discovery and History Channels.

    Areas of Expertise:
    • Arrests
    • Search & Seizure
    • Use of Force / Excessive Force - All Levels and Weaponry
    • Officer Involved Shootings(OIS)
    • In-Custody Deaths
    • Criminal Investigations
    • Police Practices, Training & Supervision
    • Adult & Juvenile Corrections
    • Law Enforcement Negligence
    • Civilian Self-Defense, Security, Foreseeable Harm
    • Insurance Cases.
    4/25/2012 · Law Enforcement
    An officer detains an active parolee gang member for questioning, and during the detention, the suspect suddenly runs. The officer chases the suspect for two blocks, observes the suspect to be grabbing into his shorts pocket.

    On November 5, 2010, Superior Court Judge Hon. Robert Perry sentenced former BART Police Officer Johannes Mehserle to two years in state prison for the January 1,2009, accidental shooting death of 22-year-old Oscar Grant at the Fruitdale BART station.

    11/3/2011 · Law Enforcement
    San Francisco Police officers respond to a call of an agitated mentally disturbed and disabled man in a wheelchair wielding a knife and vandalizing parked cars on a downtown city street. A group of at least six uniformed and plain clothes officers locate and surround the man who remains seated in his wheelchair. The officers' initial attempts to communicate with the angry, apparently delusional and armed man prove ineffective.

    9/13/2011 · Law Enforcement
    An officer responding to a report of a domestic argument between husband and wife observes the husband walking down the street.

    7/15/2011 · Law Enforcement
    One of the most pressing problems within the law enforcement and use-of-force instructor communities is the reconciliation of force deployments with subject noncompliance and resistance.

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    Law Enforcement Policy and Practices Consultant
    Robert T. Johnson
    Lt. Colonel (R)
    Palos Heights IL 60463
    phone: 708-217-8872
    Robert T. Johnson is a Law Enforcement Veteran with 32 years of active service. As a retired Lieutenant Colonel from the Illinois State Police, Mr. Johnson continues to serve as a private consultant and expert witness regarding Law Enforcement Policies and Practices most frequently for Use of Force and Police Pursuits but has also testified regarding other police policy & practices issues. He also conducts Sensitive Internal Investigations as an independent investigator for municipalities regarding allegations of Police Misconduct. Mr. Johnson has extensive experience in Police Administration, Management and Supervision, Criminal Investigations, Use of Force and Officer Invoved Shooting Investigations,Patrol Procedures, Complaint/Internal Investigations and Task Force Operations.

    Robert Johnson has been qualified as an expert witness in state and federal court. He has consulted and testified for numerous police agencies as well as plaintiffs in litigation regarding the use of force/deadly force, pursuits, emergency vehicle response, and other policy issues. Mr. Johnson has been retained as an expert in approximately 90 cases and has testified at several civil trials, State & Federal. Areas of Expertise:
    • Agency Policies, Practices and Customs
    • Batons, Flashlights and other Impact Weapons
    • Chemical Irritants & Electrical Weapons
    • Deadly Force; Shooting Avoidance and Alternatives
    • Employee Dishonesty Investigations
    • Neck Restraints and Similar Defensive Tactics
    • Positional Restraint Asphyxia
    • Prisoner Transport, Restraints, Handcuffing and Hog-tying
    • Retention of a Known Unfit Employee or Negligent Entrustment of a Weapon
    • Search and Seizure
    • Standards for Discipline, Internal Affairs Procedures, (In)Adequate Punishment
    • Use/Protection of Confidential Informants
    • Vehicle Pursuit & Emergency Response Policies & Techniques
    View Consulting Profile.
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    Harry C. McCann
    6504 S. Central Ave.
    Sea Isle City NJ 08243
    phone: 215-460-0398
    Harry C. McCann, MPA, is recognized as an expert in Policy, Procedure, and Training by the Federal Courts in the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. He provides consultation services to law firms, police departments, correctional institutions, and municipalities throughout Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.

    Background Experience - Throughout his law enforcement career, Mr. McCann has been responsible for the writing and implementation of policy and procedure relating to the Use of Force, Emergency Procedures, Prison Rape Elimination Act, Special Response Team protocols, Staff Training Lesson Plans and Development, Patrol Procedures, and Legal Issues. As the prior Director of Law Enforcement / Police Training in Bucks County (PA), the fourth largest county in Pennsylvania, he has been responsible for developing, coordinating, and implementation training programs to approximately 800 police officers representing 42 police departments.

    Litigation Support - With 37 years of law enforcement expertise in the federal, state and county level, Harry McCann offers a unique perspective of knowledge and expertise in all facets of training, policy, procedure, and case review. He has provided either expert testimony or reports to clients in the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware.

    Mr. McCann has continually demonstrated his ability to evaluate the issues and present himself in a clear, concise, thorough, and professional manner. His preparation has been acknowledged among his peers and has been honed by 35 years of college teaching and staff development instruction. He offers guidance and expert reports in matters dealing with:
    • Correctional / Police Practices and Procedures
    • Police, Correctional, Court Document Interpretation
    • Use of Force
    • Training Issues and Standards
    • DUI Checkpoint Operations
    • Wrongful Imprisonment and False Arrest
    • Emergency Procedures
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    Dr. Michael D. Lyman
    3703 Hunter Valley Dr.
    Columbia MO 65203
    phone: 573-268-4224
    Dr. Michael Lyman specializes in Police Practices and Procedure and has extensive knowledge of National Policing Guidelines and Standards. He has over 40 years of experience as a senior criminal investigator, certified police trainer and a Professor of Criminal Justice. Dr. Lyman has been retained in over 35 states (and Canada) as a Police Procedures Expert and will consider cases for both plaintiff and defense. He is the Author of six nationally recognized books on police procedure.

    Areas of Expertise:
    • Use of Force
    • Investigative Process
    • Police Pursuits
    • Police Policy
    • Training and Operational Issues
    • Management & Supervision Issues
    • Plainclothes and Undercover Operations
    Services Include:
    • Case Evaluation and Incident Reconstruction
    • Written Opinion Reports
    • Testimony in Depositions, Hearings and Trial
    Published Books: Dr. Lyman has a twenty-eight (28) year publishing record in police practices & procedure. His books are currently used by some of the nation's most prestigious colleges and universities and are often used as training materials for law enforcement organizations

    Fee schedule & CV available upon request.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD
    Written by a nationally recognized expert in criminal investigation and police procedure, this edition clearly and thoughtfully explains the fundamentals of criminal investigation and forensic science as practiced by police investigators across the nation. The text explores new and emerging techniques in forensic science and how they interface with evidence collection in the field and evidence analysis in the laboratory.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD
    Presents crime detection as a dynamic field relying heavily on the past experiences of investigators as well as recent practical and technological innovations. It explores the many external variables that can influence the investigator's success and the specific methods of crime detection and prosecution of law available today. The text focuses on the steps and considerations observed in an actual criminal investigation.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD
    This book explores the principles of policing and introduces readers to the history, administration, and day-to-day practices of the police in the United States. Offering a balanced perspective, it provides readers with the basic framework for understanding contemporary police issues and discusses the myths and preconceptions commonly associated with the profession. This edition includes a new chapter on police culture, a new chapter on police liability, and information on how police work interfaces with forensic science and modern technology.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD, Gary W. Potter
    This work focuses on the many critical areas of America's drug problem, providing a foundation for rational decisionmaking within this complex and multi-disciplinary field. Broken into three sections: Understanding the Problem, Gangs and Drugs, and Fighting Back, topics covered include the business of drugs and the role of organized crime in the drug trade, drug legalization and decriminalization, legal and law enforcement strategies, an analysis of the socialization process of drug use and abuse, and a historical discussion of drug abuse that puts the contemporary drug problem into perspective.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD
    Criminal investigation is a dynamic endeavor impacted by changes in human nature, statutory and constitutional laws, and methods of operation. New challenges are constantly posed for the investigator and the investigation of drug offenses is no exception. This new edition of the bestselling Practical Drug Enforcement provides a thoroughly revised and updated guide to the contemporary aspects of covert criminal investigations and the management of the drug enforcement unit itself.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD, Gary W. Potter
    Dispelling current myths regarding organized crime, Lyman and Potter’s fourth edition reveals a truer picture of organized crime and criminal activity today. Providing scholarly treatment and a social perspective, the authors explore the concept of organized crime, the historical foundation for its evolution and development, and the current status of criminal groups in today’s society.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD, Gary W. Potter
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD
    This enlightening book removes the mystique and misunderstanding surrounding police work, exploring the principles of policing and introducing readers to the day-to-day practices of these dedicated professionals.
    Michael D. Lyman, PhD
    A comprehensive overview of the fundamentals of criminal investigation, including documentation, suspect identification, report writing, techniques in crime detection, criminal apprehension and prosecution, collection and use of information.
    Michael D. Lyman, Gary W. Potter
    This book provides a comprehensive overview of organized crime -- its definition, theories that explain it, its businesses, history, participants (both domestic and foreign groups), political and corporate alliances, and methods for controlling it.
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    Roy G. Taylor
    9650 Strickland Rd., Suite 103-176
    Raleigh NC 27615
    phone: 919-697-1995
    Roy G. Taylor is a Criminal Justice and Security Consultant with over 35 years of experience in a wide-range of federal, state, local, and private criminal justice positions. Mr. Taylor specializes in Police Practices and Procedures and Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice.

    Current Positions:
    • Chief of Police Blue Ridge Public Safety (2014)
    • President/CEO Signal 88 Security of Charlotte (2012)
    • President/CEO Capitol Special Patrol (2012)
    • Chief of Police Capitol Special Police (2002)
    • Major(P) – Provost Marshal, Army National Guard (2000)
    • Antiterrorism / Emergency Management Branch Chief DoD (2007)
    • Provost Marshal Joint Civil Support Task Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff (2014)
    Litigation Support - Mr. Taylor is called upon to analyze cases from both defense and plaintiff perspectives. His services include case review, written reports, deposition, and trial testimony as needed.

    Areas of Expertise:
    • Police Standards & Practices
    • Use of Force & Deadly Force
    • Electronic Control Devices
    • Standards of Conduct
    • High Speed Vehicle Pursuits & Chases
    • Law Enforcement Policies and Procedures
  • Failure to Train
  • Law Enforcement Malpractice
  • Failure to Supervise
  • Violations of §1983 Civil Rights
  • Personnel Selection & Retention
  • Police K-9
  • View Roy Taylor's Consulting Profile.
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    Emanuel Kapelsohn, JD
    1771 Creekview Dr.
    Fogelsville PA 18051
    phone: 484-504-1345 or (c) 610-360-7053
    Emanuel Kapelsohn is an internationally recognized Firearms Training and Use of Force consultant who has instructed thousands of police and security officers, federal agents and others throughout the U.S. and abroad since 1980.

    A graduate of Yale University and Harvard Law School, he is a practicing attorney in addition to his consulting work. A vice president of the Internat’l Assoc. of Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors, he is a certified in force science and shooting scene reconstruction, and as an instructor in numerous law enforcement disciplines. He is a featured presenter at national and international instructor conferences.

    Mr. Kapelsohn has authored over 130 published articles, is Associate Editor of "Standards & Practices Guide for Law Enforcement Firearms Instructors," and principal author of "Firearms Training Standards for Law Enforcement Personnel," and "Guidelines for Simulation Training Safety."

    He testifies as an expert witness in civil and criminal cases in state and federal courts nationwide, and has testified by invitation before both houses of Congress.

    Testimony on the Following Subjects:
    • Gun Accidents
    • Firearms Safety
    • Gun Handling Procedures
    • Gun Storage
    • Firearms Design
    • Operability
    • Trajectories
    • Velocities
    • Ballistics
    • Ejection Patterns - Ricochets
    • Proximity Testing
    • Gunshot Evidence
  • Bullet Wounds
  • Reconstruction of Shooting Scenes
  • Bullet Penetration
  • Shooting Range Safety
  • Hunting Accidents
  • Holsters and other Shooting Products
  • Self Defense
  • Knives and other Weapons
  • Involuntary Muscular Contraction and Accidental Discharge
  • Police and Security Firearms Training
  • Tactics and Procedures
  • Use of Force
  • View Emanuel Kapelsohn's Consulting Profile.
    Emanuel Kapelsohn (Principal Author)
    This manual is designed to address and hopefully reduce, the tragic incidents of officer deaths in recent years which have occurred in role-playing and force-on-force training exercises. These are the most authoritative source of guidance available on simulation training safety.
    Emanuel Kapelsohn
    A guide to help every Police Agency set up and maintain a firearms program with suggestions on training and standards officers should be able to obtain.
    Emanuel Kapelsohn (Assoc. Ed.)
    This book is a must for any firearms program. As an outline of relevant knowledge for law enforcement firearms instructors, this Reference Guide is more than just a glossary of terms; besides a guide to nomenclature, it is an index to professional standards and practices, whose dissemination is at the heart of IALEFI's mission. It has three complementary functions, combining features of a glossary or dictionary, an encyclopedia, and a handbook.
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    Michael J. Canaan, CPP CFLC
    Post Office Box 5909
    Kent WA 98064-5909
    United States of America
    phone: (253) 852-7000
    Michael J. Canaan, CPP CFLC is a Forensic Security Management Expert Witness with over 38 years of experience in Military and Civil Law Enforcement, Corporate and Private Investigation professions. He has conducted investigative, security risk and threat assessment services throughout North America, to include Alaska and Canada, as well as, several countries in Central and South America for individuals and corporations in residences, educational settings, on corporate campuses, and large venue events.

    Mr. Canaan provides forensic security management expert services in three categories:

    SECURITY: premises liability; inadequate security; negligent hiring and retention; inadequate supervision and training; excessive or improper use-of-force; foreseeability; security policies and procedures; targeted violence mitigation and violence risk management; executive protection.

    DETECTION CANINE OPERATIONS: methodology; deployment; training.

    INVESTIGATIONS: internal investigations; employee misconduct; due diligence; stalking; threat analysis; surveillance; covert video; personal injury and worker’s compensation insurance fraud.

    In June 1997, the American Society for Industrial Security awarded Mr. Canaan the security profession's highest recognition of practitioners, the Certified Protection Professional. This Board Certification in Security Management is based upon experience and passage of examination that provides an objective measure of an individual's broad-based knowledge and competency in security management.

    In July 2015, Mr. Canaan was awarded the Certified Forensic Litigation Consultant credential by the Forensic Expert Witness Association denoting that he has met the eligibility criteria in the completion of numerous educational courses in the subjects of forensic analysis, ethics, testimony, litigation consulting and expert witnessing.

    Since 1991, Mr. Canaan has served as President of Trident Investigative Service, Inc. He is a former Washington Certified Police Officer and Narcotics Detector Dog Handler.

    Mr. Canaan is certified instructor in related disciplines and maintain active membership in numerous professional associations. BA in Criminal Justice.

    View Michael Canaan's Consulting Profile.