Reasoning, Inc. provides expert testimony for trademarks, defamation, authorship attribution, and communicative malpractice related to faulty tests and surveys. Reasoning is a group of doctoral-level linguists and logicians with superior understanding of all aspects of language. We do linguistic and logical analyses of publications, newspapers, books, letters, interviews, advertisements, manuals, contracts--to identify meanings, inferences, innuendoes, bias, actual malice, damage to reputation, similarity to other documents, copyright infringement, plagiarism, breach of contract, authorship, and fraud.
As a specialist in educational testing, Dr. Habick provides expert testimony on educational practices related to fairness, bias, psychometrics, and flawed test questions or testing programs. He provides Linguistic Analysis of news reports and other communications and in the assessment of Violations of Legal, Ethical, and Professional Standards.
Dr. Habick testified as an expert witness in linguistics in the U.S. District Court, Trenton, in The United States of America v. Tyshon Bey. Dr. Habick performed linguistic analyses on defamation and trademark cases for Pisanelli-Bice, Las Vegas; Shumaker, Loop & Kendrick, Tampa; Seed Intellectual Property Law Group, Seattle, and Perkins Coie, Seattle.
Reasoning, Inc. also provided expert testimony on unfair testing, grading, and educational practices for Seals v. State of Mississippi et al.
Areas of Expertise:
American Dialect Society (ADS)
International Association of Forensic Linguists (IAFL)
Paul T. Fogle, Ph.D., CCC-SLP, earned his BA, MA, and PhD in Speech-Language Pathology (minor: Psychology) and has been a practicing therapist since 1971. A university professor for 35 years (now Professor Emeritus), he primarily taught graduate courses in Neurology and Neuropathologies of Adults and Children, Swallowing Disorders / Dysphagia, Gerontology, Voice Disorders, Cleft Lip and Palate, and Counseling Skills for Speech-Language Pathologists.
Consulting Services: In private practice, Dr. Fogle specializes in Neurological Disorders (strokes and traumatic brain injury) in adults and children. He works with a great variety of speech, language, cognitive, and swallowing disorders of children and adults from neonatal intensive care units (NICU) to the last moments of life, and in numerous settings, such as schools, hospitals (acute, subacute, convalescent), rehabilitation centers, clinics, and private practice.
Communication Disorders include:
Speaking Engagements / Presentations: An expert in his field, Dr. Fogle has delivered approximately 150 presentations at state, national, and international conventions and conferences. In 2017, he was the keynote speaker at the International Speech-Language Pathology Conference in Las Vegas, NV, where the topic was, “Sports-Related Concussions in Children and Adolescents.”
Dr. Fogle has presented all-day seminars and workshops in cities throughout the U.S. and in several foreign countries, including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Egypt, and Romania. The seminars and workshops provide continuing education for Speech-Language Pathologists, Occupational Therapists, Physical Therapists, and Special Education teachers. Topics have included:
Author: Dr. Fogle has authored or co-authored five textbooks (currently working on his sixth, Traumatic Brain Injury in Infants, Children, and Adolescents) and four therapy manuals that are used in universities, hospitals, rehabilitation centers, and clinics throughout the U.S. and other English-speaking countries.
Forensic linguistics is the application of the tools, concepts and analytical techniques of linguistics to legal issues involving language. It has at least 13 sub-disciplines, of which I practice four. My expertise in these legal applications derives from my linguistic studies in granmmar, semantics, phonetics, dialectology, language change, lexigcography, and stylistics, as well as from my many years of writing and editing experience. Here is how all of this experience applies to legal cases:.
Forensic Semantics: Analysis of and expert opinion on the meaning of words, phrases, clauses, paragraphs, etc., in legal, personal, and commercial communication (e.g., interpretation of contracts, wills, prenuptial agreements, laws and regulations; trademark/copyright infringement).
Forensic Stylistics: Analysis of the syntax, style, word choice, spelling, punctuation, rhetorical strategies, and other features of anonymous, disputed, or forged documents (including e-mails); expert opinion on plagiarism, authorship and/or characteristics of author.
Robert Leonard and Associates consults with law firms, government and law enforcement agencies, and individuals in situations where language analysis may be helpful. Their team of associate linguists analyze many types of language evidence and construct multi-level analyses, examining a wide variety of identifying features of language usage.
Principal, Robert A. Leonard, PhD, is a Linguistics and Language Analysis Expert with decades of experience in his field. Dr. Leonard is a Fulbright Fellow, Fellow of the Faculty of Columbia University, named Forensic Linguist of the Year by the GSFL, Teacher of the Year at Hofstra University, and Distinguished Faculty Lecturer at Hofstra. He founded and directs a fully accredited graduate program in Forensic Linguistics at Hofstra where he is a fully tenured Professor.
Experience: Dr. Leonard has been employed by the FBI to work on specific cases, train their agents, and analyze and advise on their Communicated Threat Assessment Database (CTAD), a "computerized database/software program designed to be the primary repository for all communicated threats and other criminally oriented communications" within the FBI and the United States.
Dr. Leonard has also trained British law enforcement agencies, analyzed murder-related letters for the Pennsylvania State Police; consulted on domestic terrorism cases for law enforcement agencies in California; analyzed testimony that resulted in perjury indictments for the District Attorney in Dauphin County, Pennsylvania; linguistically traced threatening letters for the Baltimore Police; linguistically traced bomb-threat voice calls to the Nassau County, New York courthouse; and consulted on scores of other criminal cases at the request of law enforcement agencies throughout the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and continental Europe, as well as on scores of civil cases for major law firms for clients including Apple, Inc., and Facebook.
Media / Speaking Engagements: Dr. Leonard delivers presentations on the science of forensic linguistics and has been interviewed by such media outlets as the New York Times, The New Yorker Magazine, the Wall Street Journal, Smithsonian Magazine, ABC Nightline, USA Today, the Washington Times, and the Associated Press to name a few.