Adam Bercovici has over 40 years of experience in the Police and Security field. Mr. Bercovici spent 30 of those years with the LAPD, 20 as a supervisor and manager. He is currently a retired LAPD lieutenant and former security company CEO.
Background: Mr. Bercovici's leadership assignments included the Criminal Investigation Section- Major Crimes Division-The Joint Terrorism Task Force, The FBI Violent Crime Task Force ( where he supervised the FBI Fugitive Task Force), The Special Investigation Section, and Homicide Special Section.
Since 2012, Mr. Bercovici has worked as a licensed private investigator and subject matter expert, and consultant in the areas of Police Practices and Complex Police Investigations. His clients have included major law firms, insurance companies, and corporations. Mr. Bercovici is currently retained on several high-profile cases. He is an experienced Expert Witness who has written numerous Rule 26 Reports and has testified in both State and Federal courts. Writing examples can be provided. Mr. Bercovici has been an on-air talent, producer, and script and story consultant in the entertainment industry. He was the Co-Talent on The History Channel Series JFK Declassified-Tracking Oswald. Mr. Bercovici was the Executive Producer for American Cartel for Discovery Plus.
Litigation Support: Adam Bercovici splits his work between defense and plaintiff. He has been retained by major civil rights firms, major municipalities and their legal counsel, plaintiff attorneys, city attorneys, and criminal defense attorneys. Mr. Bercovici accepts work based on the merits of the individual case.
Emanuel Kapelsohn is an internationally recognized Firearms Training and Use of Force consultant who has instructed thousands of police and security officers, federal agents and others throughout the U.S. and abroad since 1980. A graduate of Yale University and Harvard Law School, he is a practicing attorney in addition to his consulting work.
This manual is designed to address and hopefully reduce, the tragic incidents of officer deaths in recent years which have occurred in role-playing and force-on-force training exercises. These are the most authoritative source of guidance available on simulation training safety.
This book is a must for any firearms program. As an outline of relevant knowledge for law enforcement firearms instructors, this Reference Guide is more than just a glossary of terms; besides a guide to nomenclature, it is an index to professional standards and practices, whose dissemination is at the heart of IALEFI's mission. It has three complementary functions, combining features of a glossary or dictionary, an encyclopedia, and a handbook.
Law Enforcement Security Expert Witness Roy Taylor
Dr. Roy G. Taylor is a current Chief of Police with over 40 years of experience in a wide-range of federal, state, local, and private criminal justice positions. Dr. Taylor specializes as an expert witness in Police Practices and Procedures and Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice. Current Positions:
Chief of Police Blue Ridge Public Safety (2014)
President/CEO Signal 88 Security of Charlotte (2012)
President/CEO Capitol Special Patrol (2012)
Chief of Police Capitol Special Police (2002)
Lt. Colonel – Provost Marshal, Army National Guard (2000)
Antiterrorism / Emergency Management Branch Chief DoD (2007)
Provost Marshal Joint Civil Support Task Force, Joint Chiefs of Staff (2014)
Litigation Support - Dr. Taylor is called upon to analyze cases from both defense and plaintiff perspectives. His services include case review, written reports, deposition, and trial testimony as needed.
Dr. James F. Pastor, Ph.D, JD, CPP, brings a unique and remarkable 40+ year career in Security, Policing, and Public Safety, starting as a tactical officer in Gang Crime Enforcement for the Chicago Police Department, one of the most active policing units in the country.
As a security expert, author, attorney, and former professor, Dr. Pastor merges security methods, academic theories, and legal principles; providing an exceptional level of depth and breathe in your case. As an attorney, he served and advocated for both the Chicago Police Department and for two police unions. In addition, he has represented both security guard and electronic security firms. These experiences bring broad experience into the security industry and public safety.
Augmented with a doctorate in Public Policy Analysis, he understands that policies create incentives and drive human behavior. As these directly impact public safety and crime, few possess his experience, his unique insight and his security sense.
Areas of Expertise:
Foreseeability & Lawlessness
Terrorism & Extremism
Search & Seizure Policies & Procedures
Risk & Liability
Inadequate / Negligent Security
Police Procedures & Use of Force
Police Disciplinary Methods & Management
Litigation Support - Dr. Pastor is a highly regarded expert witness with 40+ years experience in policing, security, public safety, and legal issues relating to these. His depth and breathe of experience is substantive, yet practical. Bringing a unique background, along with credentials and skills, including participating in over 700 prior depositions, has proven to be very effective in his expert witness role.
Simply stated, Dr. Pastor brings practical “street cop” thinking layered with years of academic, legal, and professional experience. He understands the real world, criminological theories, and security methodologies. Combined with security laws and public safety policies, each are merged into authoritative analysis, assessments, and presentations.
Dr. Pastor has over 20 years of university teaching experience in security, public safety, and policing, including Northwestern University- Center for Public Safety and the International Law Enforcement Academy.
Author of four books on security and public safety, plus chapter on Private Policing in ASIS International's Protection of Assets Manual and created Privatization of Policing Bibliography for Oxford University Press, both being comprehensive, substantive works relating to Private Policing.
In the past several years many in the security industry have advocated increasing professional standards. The hallmark criteria of professionalism usually relate to training, wages, recruitment standards, and accountability.
When considering how to limit crimes by third parties, or at least limit the liability exposure from such, there are three basic approaches: pre-incident assessments, post-incident investigations, and legal defenses.
Dr. Pastor uses his experience to tackle extremist ideologies and the progressive agenda using reason along with his unique perspective. Exposing the underlying intent of policies built on vacant, dangerous mantras, those who care about this country and sense something is terribly wrong will find his book insightful, yet chilling.
This book addresses the impact and implications of private policing on public streets, and begins with a look at private policing from conceptual, historical, economic, legal and functional perspectives.
This book examines suggested security methods designed to diminish or negate the consequence of crime and misconduct, and is an attempt to understand both the legal exposures related to crime and the security methods designed to prevent crime.
This book provides a unique and thorough examination of the current state of policing and reviews recent events to identify troublesome trends and potential vulnerabilities that must be addressed. This forward-looking guide introduces a new model of policing—Public Safety Policing—that accounts for the changes already underway and offers an organized and proactive response to the new breed of problems on the horizon.
Timothy A. Dimoff, CPP, founder and president of SACS Consulting & Investigative Services, Inc. a leading security consulting firm, has over 40 years of experience in Law Enforcement and Security matters for both the public and private sectors. He is multi-certified in the security field and is considered one of the nation's leading authorities on negligent security procedures; security & vulnerability issues; police procedures and operations including use of force; high-risk workplace and human resource issues; narcotics investigations and enforcement.
Mr. Dimoff is board certified by ASIS as a Certified Protection Professional (CPP?) which is internationally recognized as the “gold standard” certification for security management professionals, demonstrating their knowledge and competency in seven key domains of security.
Litigation Support - Mr. Dimoff has over 20 years of experience in testifying and consulting as an expert witness in over 500 cases and trials for both the plaintiff and the defense sides. His expert witness experience includes law enforcement procedures, security negligence of business or physical premises, human resources issues, meeting standards of practice in hiring and termination, employment practices, proper documentation, training, supervision, policies and procedures, harassment, discrimination, internal investigations, threats and excessive use of force.
Mr. Dimoff is a renowned speaker, trainer, and author who has offered expert commentary to national media including Dateline, NBC, CNN, The Chicago Tribune, The New York Times, The LA Times, The Washington Post, and The Wall Street Journal. He is the author of four books, including How to Recognize Substance Abuse, The YOU in Business, and Life Rage, a chilling examination of societal rage and safeguards against it.
Mr. Dimoff holds a Bachelor of Science Degree in Sociology with an emphasis in Criminology from Denison University.
Medical marijuana is now legal in many states and many other states are considering legalizing it. This creates a host of issues and questions, legal and otherwise, that employers must address. This also affects workplace issues and policies. And since each state is different, how do you know how your state laws vs. federal laws affect the issue? It is confusing but this is an area where it is critically important to understand and to act accordingly.
School shootings - church shootings - road rage – bullying - workplace rage. We are so angry! It seems as if there are no boundaries anymore. Have we completely forgotten how to deal with life’s setbacks in a civilized manner? Have we become a world full of life’s rages
It began with "Road Rage" and quickly expanded into "School Rage", "Work Rage", "Air Rage", "Anti-government Rage" and "Anti-business Rage." . . . Life Rage examines these rages...their causes and effects, and offers hope and solutions. Americans can come together and make our lives and businesses safer and better.
This book reveals a darker, grittier side of American culture that many people never see. Readers will be stunned by the impact drug abuse has in our homes, our workplaces, schools and even on the athletic field. A must-read for anyone who needs to be able to spot the signs of drug abuse or stop it before it begins.
This fun-to-read book is for anyone who manages or owns a small business. Filled with real-life in-the-trenches stories, you will gain exciting insights into the fundamentals of building a business from the ground up. You will also learn how to develop long-lasting customer relationships to grow your business and place it on the fast track to success.
Security Risk Management Expert Witness Alan Robinson
Alan J. Robinson brings over 35 years of Security / Law Enforcement experience to the security, safety, fire safety, emergency management field. Mr. Robinson is a former Supervisor, Protection Services for Disney-ABC, Inc. in New York, where he coordinated the security of millions of dollars in equipment for both Reagan Presidential Inaugurations. While at Disney-ABC, he was credited with creating the first hostage negotiation training class after an incident at ABC News in Washington, D.C.
Background Experience: For the past 25 years, Mr. Robinson has been the Director of Protection and Security Services/Emergency Management for Atlantic Health System; a hospital system based in New Jersey where he manages: Public Safety and Security, Fire/Life Safety, Emergency Management, Investigations, and Special Events for a healthcare system that approximately 10 million square feet of physical plant and campus, spread throughout New Jersey.
Mr. Robinson directly and indirectly manages over one-hundred (100) security officers, investigators, fire safety officers, emergency management officers, and contract law enforcement officers. He has successfully navigated numerous external agency regulatory compliance surveys including those from the “Joint Commission,” State Department of Health, New Jersey Office of Homeland Security, and New Jersey Office of Counter-Terrorism.
Litigation Support: Mr. Robinson has been retained to provide consultation, security analysis, and security expert witness testimony by plaintiff and defendant in a wide variety of civil suits. He is available to consult and testify in matters concerning:
John M. White, CPP, CHPA is Board Certified in Security Management; Certified Protection Professional (CPP); Certified Healthcare Protection Administrator (CHPA); and a Published Author.
Mr. White has been a professional security practitioner, security consultant, and expert witness since 1999. He has over 40 years of experience in Corporate Security Management and Law Enforcement and Security consulting, including physical security, security operations, regulatory compliance, & security training. Prior to forming Protection Management, LLC, Mr. White served a distinguished career in law enforcement, corporate security, and the military.
As a security consultant, Mr. White has developed and/or assessed security programs involving multi-unit residential properties, hotels/motels, homeless shelters, tourism services, places of worship, retail stores, high rise office/residential buildings, food services, entertainment services, healthcare services, hospitals, long-term care facilities/assisted living, parking facilities, college campuses, lounges, and other commercial properties.
In 2013, Mr. White was approached by publisher Butterworth-Heinemann and asked to write a book on security risk assessments. That book, titled: Security Risk Assessment – Managing Physical and Operational Security was published in July 2014 and is available online through numerous bookstores.
Litigation Support - Mr. White has been retained by law firms representing plaintiffs and defendants in negligent security, premises liability, and use of force lawsuits in the field of security. His services include case consultation, document review and analysis, deposition, arbitration and mediation, and trial testimony when necessary.
This is the most up-to-date and comprehensive resource available on how to conduct a thorough security assessment for any organization.
A good security assessment is a fact-finding process that determines an organization’s state of security protection. It exposes vulnerabilities, determines the potential for losses, and devises a plan to address these security concerns. While most security professionals have heard of a security assessment, many do not know how to conduct one, how it’s used, or how to evaluate what they have found.
Security Risk Assessment offers security professionals step-by-step guidance for conducting a complete risk assessment. It provides a template draw from, giving security professionals the tools needed to conduct an assessment using the most current approaches, theories, and best practices.
Michael Levine is one of the most decorated Supervisory Agents in the history of the Drug Enforcement Administration. A US Law Enforcement Procedure Expert, Mr. Levine has many decades of courtroom experience (civil & criminal) as a Trial consultant and Expert Witness, including 25 years of service with DEA, Customs, BATF, and the IRS Criminal Investigations Division. Mr. Levine's supervisory and other law enforcement experience includes being in command of task force units combining officers of FBI, BATF, IRS, Customs, NYPD and other police agencies, service as an Internal Affairs supervisory investigator, a senior inspector with the Department of Justice OPR, Office of Professional Responsibility, and Director of a sheriffs department drug bureau.
Mr. Levine, during his decades of trial experience, both as a senior law enforcement officer including the past 30 years as a professional trial consultant, has qualified as an expert witness for both prosecution and plaintiff as well defense, in federal and state courts including 19 states, Puerto Rico and 8 foreign nations. He offers full trial consulting and investigative services in both criminal and civil matters as follows: Expert Witness File Review and Strategy Assessment; Case Particular Design of Cross-Examination "menus"; Investigative, Technical and Research Support; Expert Witness Report and/or Affidavit Preparation. Utilizing his extensive experience as a Supervisory Internal Affairs Investigator, he can also identify the elements of probable cause indicative of false reporting, cover-up, and the concealment of Brady materials. Since the year 2007 he has been retained by the Atlanta and DeKalb County District Attorneys Offices, to conduct police-involved shooting reviews and as such has testified before criminal grand juries leading to the indictment and conviction of law enforcement/violators.
Mr. Levine specializes in full trial consulting services and expert testimony in criminal and civil matters and has testified as an expert in the following areas of expertise:
Use of Force - Reasonableness, Excessive, Deadly
Informant Recruitment, Management, Corroboration
Investigative Procedures, Interview Tactics
Title Three Investigations / Electronic Eavesdropping Devices
Narcotic / Drug Enforcement
Undercover Use of Informants to Entrap
Internet Drug Trafficking
Blind Mule Defense
Undercover for Internet Child Predatory Practices
Undercover Entrapment (all areas)
International drug trafficking practices and mores
Reasonableness of Arrest Tactics, Raids, Search Warrants
Michael Levine is the only US law enforcement expert ever admitted to testify before a Japanese court, (Japan v Goldstein) and used the Blind Mule Defense, which resulted in an acquittal. He is a best-selling author, media consultant, lecturer and police instructor with extensive experience as court-qualified expert witness and trial consultant in civil and criminal matters.
Since leaving the Department of Justice, he has been retained in excess of 500 occasions as a trial consultant/expert witness throughout the United States, Canada, England and Japan. Mr. Levine has also remained active as a police instructor in the US, Canada and Australia. In January of 2008, his police instructional manual "Undercover Tactics and Informant Handling" previously written for the Department of Justice, was published by the New York State Department of Justice Services and utilized as an instructional manual for New York State law-enforcement. The manual was subsequently edited and republished by the US State Department for the instruction of Brazilian Federal Police which was conducted by Mr. Levine and his team of US-based experts. The manual was subsequently republished via academia.edu from where it is now among the top .05% of Global downloads by police agencies, attorneys and researchers.
Relying on data taken from 45 years of professional experience as a Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) supervisory agent, U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ) expert on undercover and informant handling procedures, trial consultant, expert witness, and police instructor, the author details the evolution of the Reverse Sting operation and its related informant-handling practices, from a once valuable and effective investigative tool to a headline grabbing scam that has severely damaged our system of justice by obliterating the entrapment defense and turning the Reverse Sting into a way to make money for criminal informants.
Law enforcement agencies call them CIs (Cooperating Individuals, Confidential Informants, and/or Criminal Informants). Cops who use them call them stoolpigeons, stools, rats, chotas, etc. Intelligence agencies (Central Intelligence Agency [CIA], Defense Intelligence Agency [DIA], etc.) call them "assets" or the more confusing "agents."
On January 12, 2000, Gloria Cespedes-Cano and her teenaged daughter Sandra1 stepped through the doors of the LACSA (Costa Rican national airline) baggage department at John F. Kennedy International Airport and into a nightmare
During my 25-year career in Law Enforcement, working for four Federal law enforcement agencies - IRS Intelligence, BATF, Customs and DEA - I never lost a prosecution case. Here's the "secret" to my success
Fight Back, designed by Michael Levine, one of the most effective narcotic agents in drug war history and the author of NY Times bestseller Deep, is a tactical anti-drug manual for families, communities and schools. Called "the only drug plan ever to come out of America that made any sense" (Swedish Carnegie Institute), the plan-unlike the, now, $1 trillion war on drugs-has proven itself effective wherever employed.
The Big White Lie, by New York Times best-selling author and former DEA undercover agent, Michael Levine, is a fly-on-the-wall look at the top-secret deep cover operation that ripped the lid off CIA sabotage of the War on Drugs. The New York Times described the book as a "hair-raising" non-fiction book that "moves with the speed of a first-rate thriller."
"Deep Cover," a NY Times bestseller by former DEA agent Michael Levine, is a first-hand account of the sabotage of a DEA undercover sting operation that threatened to expose US government ties to drug financed governments in Mexico, Panama and Bolivia. As the NY Times put it: "A fascinating, exciting and sometimes horrifyingly comic tale...
Security Premises Liability Expert Witness Howard Levinson
Howard Levinson, CPP has been in the Security field for over 40 years. He is a Board Certified Protection Professioal (CPP) and services clients throughout the USA and Internationally.
As the President of Expert Security Consulting, his firm provides services such as Risk and Vulnerability Assessments/Surveys and Security System Design of new and existing private and public facilities. His diverse experience in Security/Loss Prevention includes Education Complexes, Banking, Retail, Commercial, Industrial, High Tech, Distribution/Supply Chain, Hospitality, Multi-unit residential, High-End and VIP residences and many others. Mr. Levinson has performed or directed consultations at over 200 client locations.
Howard has been an Expert Witness specializing in Security and Premise Liability for over 28 years. He assists attorneys in preparing for Premise Liability cases, provides professional opinions as a subject matter expert and forensic testimony. Representing both Plaintiff and Defense, he has consulted, offered his opinion, and testified in well over 50 cases. He is available to provide clear, concise reports with documentation to meet all requirements.
Areas of Expertise Include:
Security Negligence with Security System Design (CCTV, Access Control, Alarms, Lighting)
Dr. Ron Martinelli, PhD, CMI-V, is a nationally renowned Forensic Criminologist and a federal/state courts qualified law enforcement and premises liability expert who is also a Certified Medical Investigator (physician's level). He is also a Certified Suicide Investigator.
Dr. Martinelli directs the nation's only Forensic Death Investigations & Independent Review Team of 26 law enforcement, forensic and medical experts and specializes in officer-involved death cases, civilian self-defense shooting cases and premises liability/security cases. He is a forensic/law enforcement expert to the U.S. Department of Justice, several State Attorney Generals' Offices, numerous major municipalities and nationally prominent private law firms specializing in wrongful death, civil rights and premises liability.
Dr. Martinelli is the prevailing expert in over 90% of his retained cases. He has saved defendants over $300M and earned plaintiffs over $160 million in jury verdicts and settlements since 2004. He is the media's go-to forensic expert for FOX News, One America News Network, CNN, HLN, Sky News, BBC, NPR, and the History & Discovery Channels. Dr. Martinelli is skilled in crime scene reconstruction, forensics, applied sciences, human factors, psycho-medical emergencies and premises liability and security cases. His unique and extensive field experience, combined his academic and scientific credentials, excellent written reports and persuasive testimony, make him a very appealing expert to attorneys and juries alike.
Areas of Expertise:
Search & Seizure
Use of Force / Excessive Force - All Levels and Weaponry
Officer Involved Shootings(OIS)
Law Enforcement & Corrections Practices, Training & Supervision
Officers throughout the United States and perhaps internationally have heard use of force instructors discuss the "21 Foot Rule" during their officer safety, firearms and deadly force training. As both a use of force instructor and practicing forensic police practices expert, I have also trained and testified to this concept myself.
On a hot July day, fire and police are called to the home of a 55 year old man suffering from heat stroke. Police arrive first and find the man sitting on a bench in his front yard. When the officers approach the man and ask him to give them his cane, he becomes agitated and non-compliant. One officer suddenly grabs the cane away from the man, who screams and suddenly stands up. The man is tased, taken to the ground, beaten and handcuffed. He is transported to the hospital where ER physicians confirm a diagnosis of heat stroke. The man has no criminal history. He sustains numerous moderate injuries which keep him from returning to work for several weeks. The officers and agency are sued and settle out of court.
An officer detains an active parolee gang member for questioning, and during the detention, the suspect suddenly runs. The officer chases the suspect for two blocks, observes the suspect to be grabbing into his shorts pocket.
On November 5, 2010, Superior Court Judge Hon. Robert Perry sentenced former BART Police Officer Johannes Mehserle to two years in state prison for the January 1,2009, accidental shooting death of 22-year-old Oscar Grant at the Fruitdale BART station.
San Francisco Police officers respond to a call of an agitated mentally disturbed and disabled man in a wheelchair wielding a knife and vandalizing parked cars on a downtown city street. A group of at least six uniformed and plain clothes officers locate and surround the man who remains seated in his wheelchair. The officers' initial attempts to communicate with the angry, apparently delusional and armed man prove ineffective.
A facts-based introduction to the controversial and militant Black Lives Matter political organization and movement written by a nationally renowned forensic criminologist who has been involved in many of the nation's most publicized police-involved death cases. Learn about the movement's founders, ideology, funding sources, surrogates, radical goals and objectives to disenfranchise law enforcement and usurp the rule of democratic law. Several infamous police death cases forensically explained and numerous false narratives of the movement are factually destroyed with explanations of the actual circumstances. This is a powerful, vetted "go to" reference source for researchers, the media, law enforcement and those interested in this radical movement.
Dennis Fivecoat has over 25 years of Use of Force and Firearm experience in the Military (20 years, retired) and private sector including significant training in the area of Civilian Law Enforcement. He has attended numerous firearm and use of force related training courses including instructor development with local and federal law enforcement agencies, tactical firearm, close quarters battle, concealed carry, force-on-force training, use-of-force, and legal updates.
Litigation Support - As an instructor-trainer (Master Instructor) in firearms and less lethal devices (pepper spray, expandable baton, defensive tactics, handcuffing), Mr. Fivecoat has a practical and academic basis in the use of deadly and less-lethal use of force by civilians. His experience teaching firearm use, defensive tactics, and use-of-force allow him to provide opinion on not only proper use of the tool or tactic utilized, but whether the actions were reasonable under the circumstances of the incident.
Mr. Fivecoat provides consultation and testimony on the reasonableuse of force, self-defense, and defense of others. Private citizens may become involved in situations (shootings, brandishing, threats with weapons, excessive force, false arrest, false imprisonment) where the reasonableness and legality of their actions are challenged. Review of actions taken, firearm use, and the education of the expert provide the foundation for determining the reasonableness of each parties’ actions. Mr. Fivecoat will review the incident and opine based on local law, training standards, and the reasonableness of the use of force under the circumstances and conditions of the incident.
Areas of Expertise:
Reasonable Use of Force
Threats with Weapons
Close Quarters Battle
Defense of Others
Background - Dennis Fivecoat is a retired US Army physician assistant with a wide variety of functional background and experience. He has seen service in eight different countries encompassing desert, jungle, snow, and maritime missions. His past responsibilities range from combat in SW Asia to hospital duties as an ICU nurse in South Carolina. He has responded during national hurricane relief efforts and somewhat smaller Defense Support to Civil Authority (DSCA) missions. Click for Full Biography.
911 Consulting specializes in Emergency Preparedness, Training, Drills and Exercises for corporations, campuses and medical facilities. 911 Consulting gives you practical solutions for preventing likely incidents, preparing for emergencies, responding to a crisis and resuming operations. We create a custom emergency plan, train your personnel, and stage drills to make sure you're ready.
Bo Mitchell was Police Commissioner of Wilton, CT for 16 years. He retired in February 2001 to found 911 Consulting which creates emergency, disaster recovery, business continuity, crisis communications and pandemic plans, plus training and exercises for organizations like GE HQ, Hyatt HQ, MasterCard HQ, four colleges and universities plus 25 secondary schools. He serves clients headquartered from Boston to LA working in their facilities from London to San Francisco.
Bo has earned 22 certifications in Homeland Security, Emergency Management, Disaster Recovery, Business Continuity, Safety and Security. He also serves as an expert in landmark court cases nationally. Bo is a Certified Emergency Manager, a Certified Business Continuity Professional and Certified in Homeland Security. Professional Designations: CEM, CPP, CHS-V, CBCP, CSI-ML, HSEEP, CNTA, IAC, MOAB, CHSP, CHEP, CSHM, CESCO, CHCM, CFC, CSSM, CSC, CAS, TFCT3, CERT, CHSEMR, CMC