Expertise: Mr. Purcell has over 50 years of experience in every area of investment banking including the following:
Mergers & Acquisitions
Leveraged Buyouts and Recapitalizations
Fairness Opinions and Fairness Issues
Bankruptcy issues, including fraudulent conveyance
Advice to Special Committees of Boards
Due Diligence and Disclosure Issues
Damage issues and analysis
Document Interpretation and Standards from investment banking point of views
Criminal cases involving alleged securities violations and insider trading
Financing of Debt and Equity (both public and private, taxable and tax-exempt, including structured financings)
Leasing and Real Estate Financing
Background: Mr. Purcell was a Managing Director at Dillon Read for almost 25 years and has been a Senior Advisor to a number of medium-sized investment banks. He also has served as interim CEO of a public company and has served on Boards of Directors. Mr. Purcell is currently Senior Director to the Investment Banking Firm of Seale & Associates, Washington, DC. area. Mr. Purcell has been an expert in more than 200 cases with over 180 Law Firms, including cases for the SEC, IRS and the DOJ. Has testified in court trials and arbitration trials over 40 times. He represents both plaintiffs and defendants. Subjects include all areas mentioned above.
Bryan L. Parker, CPA/PFS, CFP, CLU, ChFC, CASL, FCPA, is a Certified Forensic Accountant with over 30 years of experience in his field.
Background - Prior to founding Bryan L. Parker, CPA, LLC, Mr. Parker held the position of CFO at McPherson Oil Company ($300 million + annual revenues) where he was responsible for advising and negotiating banking relationships, acquisition review, acquisition integration, financial reporting, and interaction with external auditors. His experience also includes serving as VP of Mergers & Acquisitions for Citation Corporation (Public Co.) and CFO of TIC United Corp., Dallas, TX ($300 million + revenues).
Mr. Parker has performed business valuations for more than 100 businesses in a variety of industries including manufacturing, trucking, printing, fuel oil distribution, motor/lubricating oil distribution, professional services, restaurants, fast food franchises, metal foundry, metal forge, machining, and plastic injection molding.
Litigation Support - Mr. Parker provides expert witness services to attorneys representing both plaintiff and defendant. He offers Forensic Accounting services, written reports, deposition, and trial testimony as needed.
Scott S. Miller, MBA, ASA, ABV, specializes in Business Valuation and Transaction Consulting for small to middle market companies. He has over 35 years of professional business experience that ranges from senior operations management with publicly-traded companies to handling all aspects of operations in small privately-held manufacturing and service businesses.
Along with an MBA from the University of Houston, Mr. Miller achieved the Accredited Senior Appraiser (ASA) designation from the American Society of Appraisers, the Accredited in Business Valuation (ABV) certification from the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and has over 15 years of business / financial asset valuation and consulting experience. He is currently serving as Region 3 Governor for the American Society of Appraisers and is past President of the Houston Chapter for the ASA.
Prior to the formation of Convergent Capital Appraisers in 2007, Mr. Miller held positions with McClure, Schumacher & Associates, RR Donnelley Financial, several positions/locations with Bowne & Co., Inc., and Industrial Screenprint, Inc.
Litigation Support - Mr. Miller provides expert witness services to attorneys for plaintiff and defense in need of appraisal services. His expertise is in business valuation of closely-held businesses and the appraisal of fractional interests of equity holders. His services include thorough review and reporting, depositions, and trial testimony as needed.
Business valuation and appraisal services have been provided for a variety of purposes including, but not limited to:
Carlo Scevola & Partners is an International Fiduciary Company headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, with branches in six continents. We specialize in International Planning, Strategic Consulting and Wealth Management. Our clients trust us for everything from setting up an Offshore Company to Mergers and Acquisitions to Business Finance and Asset Protection. CS&P’s customer-centric methodology ensures that each client gets a custom-tailored solution which addresses that business’ individual objectives and requirements. Our team has expertise in every functional category and every important geography. From finance to operations to human resources to marketing – from the Americas to Europe to Africa, Asia and Oceania – CS&P can bring together experienced executives who know how to advise you and will make your enterprise a success. All this while always protecting your privacy. Services Offered: Business and Strategic Consulting
Intended as a unique source of inspiration for effective business organization and tax planning, as well as a quick and easy reference book, the Offshore Jurisdictions Guide is a comprehensive and objective guide to offshore jurisdictions offering personal taxation and business opportunities. Providing a solid overview of 100 jurisdictions around the world, this is an essential handbook for financial experts, legal advisors, consultants, and the general public.
Auto Dealership Operations Expert Witness Kevin Hochman
Kevin D. Hochman, Esq., is a dynamic and strategic automotive executive experienced and highly skilled in all areas of Dealership Operation and Management. In 2002 he worked as an attorney for a dealership consultant company, providing comprehensive and practical legal and operations guidance to over 1,100 California dealerships. Some of those duties included, advertising review, compliance audits, custom training, and publications and interpretations of federal and state regulations (ASFA, Reg. M, TILA, etc.).
In 2007, Mr. Hochman went on to work his way up to the Director of Operations and General Counsel responsible for the day-to-day legal and business operations of one of the largest privately-owned multi-state dealer groups in the country, with as many as 20 rooftops, 2,000 employees and $3 billion dollars in annual revenue. He is intimately familiar with every Dealership department and consistently interacted with managers, owners, vendors, lenders, manufacturers, insurers, and attorneys on all Dealership matters.
Mr. Hochman provided proactive and comprehensive legal direction and training to dealer personnel on all areas. He was responsible for drastically decreasing expenses and increasing operational efficiency using benchmarks and best practices improving dealership’s processes and profitability.
Additionally, he is a licensed real estate broker and negotiated and managed a $600 million commercial real estate portfolio. He has negotiated and/or has been an integral part of over 20 dealership buy/sells.
He is currently a member of the California state bar, Association of Finance and Insurance Professionals (AFIP), a Director of the National Association of Dealer Counsel (NADC), and a member of the California New Car Dealers Association (CNCDA) Regulatory and Legal Affairs Board.
Litigation Support: Mr. Hochman has provided Expert Witness, Consultation, and Case Analysis. He offers nation-wide services in litigation, arbitration and mediation.
Dennis E. Coleman, JD, MPH, has over 40 years of experience in Hospital and Healthcare Management. In 1990, he formed his own hospital administration / healthcare management services consulting firm provide healthcare management services to various healthcare provider clients in a variety of areas, including strategic planning, business development, operations management, sales and marketing, policy & procedure development, and human resources management.
Mr. Coleman's academic background includes a Juris Doctor degree from Southwestern University in Los Angeles and a Masters in Public Health degree with a Hospital Administration major and a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science, both from the University of California, Los Angeles.
Litigation Support - As a hospital administration expert witness consultant, Mr. Coleman is an advocate for applying community standards which are relevant, based upon the time frame, subject matter and administrative practice(s) appropriate to each case. He has consulted and provided case review, expert witness services, and/or strategic litigation preparation services in more than 200 legal matters. He accepts cases on behalf of Plaintiffs or Defendants.
Mr. Coleman is willing to serve as either a work product consultant or a designated expert based upon the particular strategic litigation needs of each case.
Medical Staff Credentialing & Clinical Privileging / ELAM
David H. Williams is an internationally-known expert in the Wireless / Mobile Location field and President and Founder of E911-LBS Consulting.
Litigation Support - Mr. Williams provides the highest quality and most impactful expert witness services related to wireless location, across the full range of IP / Patent, criminal, and civil case dimensions from the most technical to those regarding business methods. His services include forensic analysis, reports, and testimony on the validity and accuracy of various types of cell phone/sensor location surveillance devices and associated tracking using GPS, Call Detail Records(CDRs), Cellebrite data extraction, and other location data sources. He is an expert in determining how social media and other mobile application usage can play a key part in various cases.
Mr. Williams has successfully provided expert witness services in over 150 patent, civil, criminal, anti-trust, and ITC cases, including several successful Inter Parte Reexaminations (IPRs), and over 40 civil, criminal, and law enforcement administrative proceedings. His credentials in wireless location prior art go as far back as the early 1980s. He has been deposed 24 times and testified 8 times, including winning in the International Trade Commission (ITC) Court as well as in the Eastern District of Texas, winning both IPR and infringement cases. His work with both prosecution and defendants have resulted in numerous key wins/favorable outcomes, with over a dozen wins (against only a few losses) as well advantageous settlements/pleadings. His experience is differentiated based not only the amount of experience but its type, having worked "on-the-inside" of various carriers, infrastructure providers, and location-service application developers. This enables knowing the right questions to ask of such providers, and to "break through the wall" that such providers often put up in litigation.
The basis of Mr. Williams' expertise is his 35+ years in mobile/wireless communications and information technology solutions design, implementation and ongoing management, Mr. Williams has extensive experience in the activities and issues needed to get mobile location applications to market, including design at the application, system, interface / integration, network, IT, operational and customer facing levels. Mr. Williams has extensive expertise in all aspects of LBS delivery across the mobile location ecosystem including enabling network communications, location technologies / sensors, map data, geospatial platform / GIS, GPS and other location chipsets, location data management, and device, infrastructure, and integration providers. David Williams has developed and implemented industry-leading product and technology strategies and solutions for numerous LBS applications and markets and provides consulting and research services to some of the leading carriers and enterprises in the U.S., Asia, and Europe. His client list includes Apple, AT&T, FedEx, GE, GM, GMG, Google, The Houston Police Department, The Los Angeles District Attorney's Office, Lyft, Overhead Door, Qualcomm, Samsung, Sprint, Toyota, Verizon Wireless, Zillow, and numerous medium, small, and startup companies, plus numerous law firms of all sizes. He also provides support to various State Public Defenders Offices on a partial pro-bono basis.
Areas of Expertise:
Mobile Location-Based Services
Wireless 911 (E911); NG911
GPS Systems; Network-Based Location Determination Systems
Indoor Location Systems, incl. Real Time Location Systems (RTLS); RFID and other RF-based Location systems; WiFi-enabled positioning systems (WPS); Beacon-based systems; Hybrids/Combinations
Wireless Network Location, Internet of Things (IoT) Design
Location Data Privacy Protection and Data Security Design
Joel Feigenheimer, PhD is an industry expert with over 35 years of experience related to the Restaurant and Hospitality field. A graduate of the Cornell Hotel School, he holds an MBA in Hospitality and a PhD in Business from Northcentral University (attained 2018). Dr. Feigenheimer has been named the National Association of Concessionaires Eminent Scholar at The Chaplin School of Hospitality at Florida International University.
For the past three decades, Dr. Feigenheimer has served as both an entrepreneur and director for an International restaurant firm. He has corporate, independent, and franchise restaurant experience. Over his career he has consulted on three continents, excelled in the corporate environment, been a successful entrepreneur, and met thousands of industry leaders.
Currently on the faculty at Florida International University, he teaches Restaurant and Hospitality Management to tomorrow's hospitality leaders. His courses include Purchasing and Menu Planning, Concepts of Food and Beverage, Sustainability, Cost Control, Introductory Management Concepts, and Project Management, among others.
Litigation Support - Dr. Feigenheimer provides nationwide expert testimony relating to Food Service and Hospitality Operations. He has direct experience not only as a "legal expert" but also as an operational expert. This enables him to explain cases in a manner that juries understand, easy going yet direct and effective. Dr. Feigenheimer's services are available to attorneys representing both plaintiff and defendant.
Financial Management Consulting Group is an affiliation of well-experienced consultants serving banking interests throughout the country. Our years of experience, as bankers, as bank consultants, and as regulators provide valuable insight into case matters. We can assist both from the industry perspective and from the regulatory perspective, offering a comprehensive assessment and well-supported opinion. We have qualified as experts in numerous State and Federal jurisdictions and on numerous banking-related matters. We are dedicated to providing clients with quality, results-oriented service.
Robert Bates, JD, CPA, CFE, CVA, has over 30 years of Financial Management and Accounting experience as a Controller and CFO in various industries. He has been in several industries, including telecom, media, retail and financial services in addition to having consulting experience at startups in the software, technology, and life sciences fields.
Mr. Bates specializes in International Accounting, Software Issues, and Obtaining Financing. The CFO of a public company, he has completed due diligence accounting/reporting for 12 acquisitions, including performing Business Valuations and dealing with FAS 142 issues. Mr. Bates has handled accounting for complex debt instruments including warrants, beneficial conversion feature, and other derivative issues. He has also been responsible for SEC reporting: 10Q’s and 10K’s.
Litigation Support - Robert Bates has worked with dozens of lawyers on over 50 cases in various states. Sometimes he provides financial support for a client in litigation, or pre-litigation, and other times he provides a report, such as a damages calculation, which can be used in litigation. He also has experience providing testimony in depositions and trials.
Economic downturns and recessions are notorious for encouraging fraud. As new and prospective fraud examiners, it's imperative that you become aware of the various fraud risks that can occur and the red flags that indicate a fraud in progress.
Tony Wayne, CPA, CFF, CVA, CIRA, is a Certified Public Accountant with over 25 years of private industry senior operations experience.
Background - After a diverse career spanning 15 years in Big 8 public accounting/consulting and private industry, Mr. Wayne founded IronHorse with an emphasis on complex commercial/ financial/private placement and M & A litigation support, family law & estate valuation & forensic accounting engagements, SBA loan application business valuations, distressed business valuation & appraisal, and commercial credit & private equity portfolio reviews & FASB compliance services. Visit their website at www.ihorsellc.com.
Litigation Support - Mr. Wayne is available to advise boards of directors, senior management, and corporate counsel in all litigation matters that can impact business practices, profitability, and continued viability. He maintains rigorous compliance with certifying and credentialing bodies and their regulations and scrutinizes the facts behind complicated forensic accounting and valuation issues. He is a member of the American Bankruptcy Institute, including the Business Reorganization Committee and Fraud Task Force.
In addition, Mr. Wayne is a member of the American Institute of CPA’s, the Association of Insolvency & Restructuring Advisors, and the National Association of Valuation Analysts, his services include expert witness assistance (consulting and testifying), solvency opinions, rebuttal expertise, case assessment management, and services in other areas of dispute and pre-complaint, complaint, discovery, pre-trial, and settlement consulting.
Forensic Services Include:
Fraud prevention, detection and response
Financial Reporting Fraud and Irregularity Forensic Audits
Electronic Evidence Analysis
Preservation and Securitization
Ponzi Scheme Analysis
Asset Searches, Public Records Searches, and Related Party Search and Documentation
Pink Sheet and Other Stock Scams
Private Placement Fraud Analysis & Investigations
Borrowing Base and other Bank Fraud Examinations/Investigations
Valuation Services Include:
Mergers and Acquisitions-Buy & Sell Side Advisory
Estate Tax Returns
Buy / Sell Agreements
Distressed Business Valuation
Plan of Reorganization Valuation
Liquidation Plan Valuation
Lost Profit and Damages Computations/Valuation
Goodwill and Intangible Asset Fair Value Impairment Valuation
Lender & Private Equity Due Diligence / Portfolio Valuations
When rendering an expert opinion on fair market value (“FMV”) of an enterprise, the underlying assumption is of a hypothetical transaction, involving a willing seller and buyer, each under no compulsion to enter into a transaction. Fair value (“FV”) on the other hand introduces the notion of likely transactions, likely transaction participants.
Thirty years ago, in the midst of an early-season slump, George Brett told reporters, "The first thing I look for in the Sunday papers is who is below the Mendoza line." Brett, who went on to hit .390 that year for the Kansas City Royals, was referring to Mario Mendoza, a light-hitting shortstop for the Seattle Mariners whose surname became synonymous with hitting futility.
Two years ago, you finally closed the big merger deal you spent what seems like years working on. Perhaps, your business is tied to commercial real estate development, construction, or building materials. Just when you were ready to start that big ramp up, the bottom fell out.
Executive Summary: Imagine the extraordinarily unusual challenge of valuing a going-concern start-up enterprise yet to make their first sale which was completely destroyed by a casualty loss and never-reopened. Further complicated by the inherent ambiguity, risk and complexity of the embryonic development stage industry in which they were attempting to operate and succeed.
In certain situations, the sale of an operating entity as a going concern in a receivership proceeding is a viable alternative to seeking relief under the Bankruptcy Code. Receivership going-concern sales may be especially appropriate in complex situations where enterprise value is declining, but the company is not hopelessly insolvent. This article briefly highlights those conditions, factors, situations and circumstances that may contribute to or impede a successful going-concern transaction within a court-supervised commercial receivership.
Keegan Linscott & Associates, PC is a full-service accounting firm with more than 27 years of experience providing expert services as Certified Public Accountants, Certified Fraud Examiners, Forensic Accountants, and Certified Insolvency and Restructuring Advisors.
KLA's litigation support team assists clients and their attorneys to prepare for the financial and economic facets of settlement or trial proceedings. They perform in-depth analyses and provide clear and detailed explanations of findings. They assist attorneys as consultants or in the court in a wide range of cases and investigations. Their role can involve fact-finding, discovery, settlement negotiations, trial support, and expert witness testimony.
The professionals at KLA have testified as experts in Federal, District, Bankruptcy, State, and Tax Courts, as well as before arbitration panels. They have the proven ability to develop and communicate compelling analyses of accounting, economic and financial information to judges and juries in plain, simple language through affidavits, written reports, oral testimony, and trial graphics.
Litigation Support Services:
Analyze damages involving commercial litigation and damages involving individuals, including lost profit analysis, owner disputes, employee/employer disputes, personal injury, and business interruption claims
Evaluate the opposing party's financial damages report to uncover any hidden facts or missing information in a business damages case
Divorce litigation, including analysis of sole and separate property issues
Locate hidden assets
Analyze preference claims, inter-company transfers of assets, and fraudulent conveyances
Christopher G. Linscott, CPA, CFE, CIRA, is a Director of Keegan Linscott & Associates and is the Director of Litigation, Forensic Accounting, and Bankruptcy Support Services.
Mr. Linscott was previously employed with the international CPA firms of Coopers & Lybrand (now PricewaterhouseCoopers), and Peat Marwick (now KPMG). He has more than 30 years of experience in public accounting.
Mr. Linscott specializes in the areas of Litigation Support, Bankruptcy Reorganization, Fraud Investigations and Prevention, and Business Consulting. He has served clients in industries including construction, health care, home builders and developers, law firms, manufacturing and distribution, non-profit, professional services, real estate, restaurant franchises, retail service, and wholesale.
Mr. Linscott is a Member of the Arizona Society of CPA's, American Institute of Certified Public Accountants, National Association of Certified Fraud Examiners, Association of Insolvency and Restructuring Advisors, and a Director of the Board of Directors at Bashas’.
Leonard J. Backer has over 28 years of extensive and successful Seating, Tables and Furniture Industry experience in all key areas. Mr. Backer has been directly involved in the design and development of 250+ seating and table collections. He specializes in Private Label Manufacturing, Sourcing, and Product Development expertise.
Mr. Backer provides aggressive Expert Witness and Litigation Support services to attorneys, insurers and businesses for Plaintiff or Defense. He performs site inspections, detailed product reviews and incident analyses. He has worked with law firms and insurance companies to develop and coordinate strategies for various types of legal actions and lawsuits. Very strong hospitality background.
Mr. Backer has extensive experience with hotel, restaurant, cruise ship, retail store and senior living incidents. Personal Injury and Product Liability Cases. He provides detailed analyses, written opinions, and expert witness reports for clients throughout the U.S. Strong proven deposition and court testimony.
Areas of Expertise:
Furniture Based Disputes, Claims, or Legal Actions
Many restaurants, independent hotels and timeshare resorts have much tighter budgets these days when it comes to purchasing seating for their properties. At the same time, there seem to be many “attractive” options available for their chairs, barstools and benches...
Richard Singer is the leading expert in Golf Facility Operations, Transactions and Valuation Consulting. He has been qualified as an expert witness in cases involving golf course transactions, valuations, liability, economic potential, usual and customary practices and business plan preparation.
Mr. Singer has been the Director of Consulting Services for the National Golf Foundation (NGF) since 1997, and now has a total of 26 years of golf facility consulting experience. He first joined the NGF consulting staff in 1989 as a project analyst after completing his Finance MBA at the University of Florida. Mr. Singer has successfully managed the NGF’s well-known golf consulting practice with an industry-respected track record of success and a reputation for delivering projects on time and on budget.
Mr. Singer’s consulting services for alternative golf facilities have included both new development and operational reviews for driving ranges, putting courses, miniature golf courses, golf learning centers, executive / par-3 courses, and various combinations with other facilities. He co-authored the NGF publication How to Plan, Build and Operate a Successful Golf Range.
Nevium’s experts are trial-tested IP custom & practice damages experts who take a hands-on approach with all their IP litigation assignments. Whether you are in need of an expert to calculate economic damages as lost profits / unjust enrichment, give an opinion on specific business clauses in a license agreement or to leverage Internet and Social Media analytics to prove or disapprove infringement, Nevium has the experience and expertise.
Litigation Support:Nevium works closely with C-Level executives, in-house and outside counsel to implement the best possible business strategy that intertwines with the legal strategy. Nevium is part of the team early on in the litigation process assisting with discovery requests and deposition questions. Nevium’s experience and expertise allows the managing attorney to focus on the legal issues knowing that Nevium is proactively taking care of the business side of the case. As experienced Intellectual Property Consultants, they have real-word, hands on IP management, monetization and valuation experience that plays out well in front of a judge and jury. Nevium professionals provide IP expert witness testimony related to economic damages in a range of lost profits, unjust enrichment, relief from royalty, reasonable royalty, relief from pay per click, corrective advertising and IP valuation. They author reports and provide testimony for federal and state court claims, arbitration, and mediation related to false endorsement, defamation, infringement and unfair competition.
Publicity Rights Damages
Internet and Social Media Damages
Areas of Analyses Expertise
Relief from Royalty
Relief from Pay Per Click
Past Law Firm Clients
Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld
Gordon & Rees
Higgs Fletcher & Mack
Latham & Watkins
Pillsbury Winthrop Shaw Pittman
Dorsey & Whitney
Winston & Strawn
Doug Bania, CLP, Founding Principal Doug Bania is a founding principal of Nevium Intellectual Property Consultants. Nevium is an intellectual property consulting firm specializing in developing IP strategies, IP valuation and monetization of IP as well as providing expert testimony related to IP damages and licensing customs and practices. He has been the named expert for over 75 cases, deposed 20 times and has provided trial testimony 5 times.
Mr. Bania is a Certified Licensing Professional (CLP), a Google Analytics Certified Individual (GAIQ) and is a past committee member (2016 - 2019) for the International Trademark Association (INTA) Internet Committee and the ICANN Compliance and Domain Name Industry Subcommittee, a current member of the INTA Right of Publicity Committee and the American Bar Association (ABA), Copyright & Social Media Committee.
Mr. Bania specializes in analyses for copyright, trade dress, trade secrets and trademark infringement, publicity rights, social media and Internet infringement, defamation, marketing strategy analyses, royalty rate determinations and other intangible assets. Mr. Bania also provides valuation and monetization strategies for trademarks, trade secrets, publicity rights, domain names, Internet and social media assets, brands, copyrights and other intangible assets for financial reporting, bankruptcy and transactional due diligence.
Brian Buss, CFA, Founding Principal, is a Chartered Financial Analyst with over two decades of experience providing intellectual property and business valuation, expert testimony and transaction advisory. Mr. Buss provide solutions for IP owners, attorneys and licensees both in the United States and overseas. He has a bachelor’s degree in Biology and Economics from Claremont McKenna College and completed the Executive MBA program at San Diego State University.
An expert in valuation and economic damages calculations, Mr. Buss has valued copyrights, brands, patents and business interests across a wide range of industries from apparel companies to airports and from technology start-ups to global consumer products companies. Often engaged to analyze unique and proprietary assets and their economic impact and contribution to financial results, he works closely with clients and counsel to develop thorough yet clear and understandable analyses.
San Diego Office 415 Laurel Street, Suite 341 San Diego, CA 92101 Telephone: 858-255-4361 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Los Angeles Office 9107 Wilshire Blvd., Suite 450 Beverly Hills, CA 90210 Telephone: 310-975-3145 Email: email@example.com
Based on our knowledge of and ability to analyze and value businesses, valuation professionals are uniquely positioned to provide valuable information to business owners and managers regarding the financial value of their brand assets. In other words, how a company's brand assets are contributing to the company's overall financial performance. This "Special Issue" of The Value Examiner is intended to kick-start the discussion on brand valuation by identifying the opportunities and challenges in completing brand valuation assignments for our clients.
Use of the Internet and social media has become an increasingly essential element of conducting business in the United States and globally, which in turn raises new issues for calculating damages and performing valuations. With almost every business now using the Internet and social media to conduct business, cases of Internet IP infringement, IP misuse, and defamation have increased and evolved. Before the rise of these new media, cases of infringement and defamation typically occurred in print or on television and were visually obvious.
Most of the existing literature on copyright infringement is concerned with the valuation of intellectual property rather than the apportionment of the value that is directly attributable to the intellectual property asset at issue. Further, few of the currently proposed IP valuation methods and little of the literature addressing the determination of damages appears directly applicable to the case of copyright in the context of artistic productions. Within the creative arts, recorded music offers a particularly complex and interesting case within which to explore this issue, as different portions of the relevant copyright to the recorded song may be held by different persons.