banner ad
Experts Logo

articles

Danger Lurking in the Hot Tub

By: Roger Davis
Tel: (803) 732-6600
Email Mr. Davis


View Profile on Experts.com.


Several dangers involving the use of a hot tub (spa) may readily come to mind, such as the risk of shock or electrocution, or the risk of drowning for unsupervised young children. Not so readily apparent is the effect of overheating the human body, or "hyperthermia".

Some individuals are more susceptible to the effects of hyperthermia, including the elderly, young children, and those in poor health. The effects of hyperthermia, or overheating of the human body, cause direct responses such as headache, nausea, heat exhaustion, increased cardiac output, lethargy, confusion, heat stroke and unconsciousness. The onset of hyperthermia is defined as being at 99.5°F; if the body temperature reaches 104°F, a life-threatening medical emergency exists. Things that reduce the body's ability to shed more heat than it absorbs include dehydration, use of alcohol and/or drugs, high blood pressure, being substantially overweight or underweight, and some of the common human diseases.

The effects of hyperthermia include those that can be of particular significance when the affected person is already in a hot tub. A person experiencing confusion and lethargy may well be physically unable to remove himself/herself from a hot tub and could drown as a result. Cases investigated by The Warren Group involving both the elderly and youth where the victims were suspected of having suffered drowning or near-drowning caused by electric shock or entrapment on a suction drain were more likely caused by hyperthermia.

Monitoring Hot Tub Temperature

The effects of hyperthermia include those that can be of particular significance when the affected person is already in a hot tub. A person experiencing confusion and lethargy may well be physically unable to remove himself/herself from a hot tub and could drown as a result. Cases investigated by The Warren Group involving both the elderly and youth where the victims were suspected of having suffered drowning or near-drowning caused by electric shock or entrapment on a suction drain were more likely caused by hyperthermia.

Always carefully monitor the temperature of a functioning hot tub before use - it must never rise above 104°F; just as importantly, limit your time in the hot tub to a maximum of 15 minutes, less for those susceptible to the onset of hyperthermia. Never allow children to use hot tubs unsupervised. It can literally be a matter of life and death.


Roger Davis, PE, CFEI, Senior Consulting Engineer, is a Licensed Professional Engineer in South Carolina, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Mississippi. Mr. Davis is experienced with municipal water, sanitary sewer, and storm water system design, construction, and operations. His expertise also includes property damage and personal injury investigations involving municipal utilities. Roger Davis has investigated claims and injuries ranging from pressure piping system failures and material and personnel handling equipment to large engine failures and fires involving machinery, generators and vehicles.

©Copyright - All Rights Reserved

DO NOT REPRODUCE WITHOUT WRITTEN PERMISSION BY AUTHOR.

Related articles

Scientific-Advisory-Services-Logo.jpg

9/15/2017· Product Liability

A Viable Product vs. The Legal System

By: Dr. Carl J. Abraham

In the United States, the most litigious country in the world, a products liability action may be brought, under state law, for express or implied breach of warranty, misrepresentation and negligence. Under the theory of strict liability, a lawsuit may be initiated on the grounds of manufacturing and design defects as well as poor and inadequate warning instructions. The best defensive strategy for a company to avoid becoming involved in any of the above is to manufacture the safest product possible within parameters of economic feasibility. If said manufacturer can vouch for safety factors in the design, production, testing, inspection and evaluation of its product as well as attentiveness to consumer complaints, it will be more likely to avoid litigation or at least be able to prevail in the courtroom.

Goldhaber-Research-Associates-Logo.jpg

7/28/2014· Product Liability

Should Food Carry Warning Labels?

By: Dr. Gerald M. Goldhaber

Ten years ago, Federal Judge Robert Sweet ruled in the Pe1man v. McDonald's Corp. case that the plaintiffs' complaint failed to prove that McDonald's was responsible for the two teenagers' obesity. Attorney David Wallace wrote in a recent issue of Product Liability Law and Strategy that given the statistics (1/3 of U.S. adults and 17% of U.S. children are obese), "the number of potential claimants is staggering." While the original claims in the Pe1man lawsuit may be difficult to prove on causation, specifically linking the consumption of higb-fat, high-salt fast foods directly to the effects of obesity, such as Type 2 diabetes and other cardiovascular risks, a different claim may be more successful.

Goldhaber-Research-Associates-Logo.jpg

6/25/2014· Product Liability

FDA Warns Against DMAA: Supplement Makers Agree to Remove DMAA

By: Dr. Gerald M. Goldhaber

In the November, 2012 issue of this newsletter, I wrote that the FDA was investigating reports of deaths due to the intake of energy drinks and was determining if energy drinks were safe. Earlier this month, the FDA issued a harsh warning against energy drinks and supplements containing the stimulant dimethylamylamine (DMAA), telling consumers to stay away from it while adding that the agency was "using all available tools at its disposal" to ensure that it is no longer sold. This is a formidable task because we as a nation spend more than $12.5 billion a year on energy drinks, shots and drink mixes. Although seven other countries, including Canada, had previously banned supplements containing DMAA, these products had remained widely available at supplement stores in the United States, including GNC.

;
Experts.com-No broker Movie Ad
Unicourt Logo Button

Follow us

linkedin logo youtube logo rss feed logo