Eric Kimberling, MBA, is one of the most recognized and respected independent Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems expert in the world, giving 100% unbiased advice to clients for more than 20 years. Mr. Kimberling has been quoted in hundreds of articles, including the Wall Street Journal, CIO Magazine and Fortune. He provides keynote speeches at industry conferences and universities worldwide, and continually provides industry thought leadership through his YouTube channel, along with blogs, podcasts, webinars. He is the author of multiple acclaimed books, including, “Lessons from 1,000 ERP Implementations,” “Guide to Successful Digital Transformations,” and others.
Throughout his career, Mr. Kimberling has been called upon to investigate the feasibility of litigation, provide witness testimony and build background reporting for the industry’s highest-profile ERP lawsuits, Waste Management v. SAP, Lyons Magnus, Inc. v. Fujitsu America, Inc.; Partner Services, Inc v. Avanade; Kathy Pishghadamian v. Nicor Gas; Flotek Industries, Inc. v. CD Group, Inc.; Midwest Tape LLC v. ESR Associates, Inc.; and Whaley Food Service Repairs v. Epicor to name a few. Eric is actively involved in implementations and project recoveries, giving him a unique and up-to-date experience with modern enterprise technologies.
Areas of Expertise:
Organizational Change Management
Sales Cycle Fraud and Misrepresentation
Project Team Staffing
Software Schedule Delays
Eric holds an MBA with an emphasis in operational strategy and a Bachelor of Science in business administration from Daniels College of Business at the University of Denver. He is also Six Sigma certified and a certified practitioner of multiple ERP solutions, including SAP, Oracle, Microsoft Dynamics, Epicor and Infor, among others. He has won numerous industry awards for his experience and contributions, including Supply Chain Pro to Know and Best Independent ERP Blog from ERP Focus.
I have been involved with Microsoft Dynamics implementations for nearly 20 years now. I have also spent the last decade providing Microsoft Dynamics expert witness testimony in implementation failures and lawsuits.
Rose Porterfield Group (RPG) has over 30 years of experience providing Business Performance and Human Resource services. As experts in human behavior, we provide litigation support strategy and testimony for attorneys and corporations. Offering unbiased, detailed, and objective expert opinion on all aspects of human behavior in the workplace, we can help determine the facts, motivations, and human factors involved in the case.
Forensic and Expert Testimony Cases Include:
Robyn W. Porterfield, PhD - Managing Principal at RPG, spent over ten years in sales and marketing prior to completing her PhD in Industrial Psychology. While completing her PhD, Dr. Porterfield served as Director of Client Services for a Texas-based on-line psychological testing firm, consulting to management on such issues as individual and team fit, conflict resolution, hiring, coaching, and management succession planning.
As a consultant, Dr. Porterfield has assessed executives in such diverse industries as financial management, food service, telecommunications and retail. For five years Robyn and Bob co-wrote a column for the Dallas Business Journal titled, C-Level Coach. Robyn is also a professional mediator and currently mediates for Dispute Resolution Services of Tarrant County, Texas.
Robert G. Rose, PhD, Principal at RPG, received his PhD from Florida State University. Since 1976 he has served as consultant to organizations in virtually every industry including health care, retail, IT services, manufacturing, construction, aviation, and many others. In his over 30 years as a consultant, Dr. Rose has encountered virtually every problem that an organization can experience, and has seen that good teamwork - from hiring to development - always benefits both the individual and the company.
Bob is the author of numerous articles on communication, crisis handling, and conceptualizing purpose and culture within organizations, and his books on consulting are required reading by major corporations..
As an employment attorney, or perhaps as General Counsel for your organization, you have probably been fielding more and more questions about bullying in the workplace-we certainly have. While bullying isn't illegal - yet - you also probably know that it costs a lot in terms of its effect on production. Plus, you know it's not right-not really. So, what's the right approach? Our rule of thumb is not to overact to simple, appropriate work behavior, but you also can't put up with bullying either. We'll share some examples from our practice; see if any of these sound familiar.
If you are the CEO or General Counsel of your company, you should be preparing for a new challenge. The gaining momentum of the #metoo movement means there will likely be an increase in sexual harassment complaints. Raghu and Suriani certainly think it's already happening (#METOOWHATNEXT: Strengthening workplace sexual harassment protection and accountability, nwlc.org, 2017.), and our clients are certainly calling us more often to investigate claims. To better prepare, here are some suggestions we urge you to consider.
Let's say you have Bill who is a good guy in many ways but he can be a grouch. He is particularly likely to nag the young female accounting staff for inquiring about his expense reports. He looms over them and talks loudly sometimes shaking his finger, and using occasional mild profanity. You've talked to him and he always gives a half-hearted sheepish apology - and then does it again the following month.
Almost all of us have been to the yearly company football game, company barbeque, or happy hour. Organizations often think these events create closeness, trust, a sense of "teamwork", or even a sense of family. We love a good burger and a beer as much as anyone but in our experience the injuries, harassment and other complaints that can come from company social events may cause problems for employers. And we find that the defense that the events were "voluntary" may not hold up.
Virginia Rhodes, EdD has an extensive background in public schooling with over 35 years of experience in duty of care: teacher, principal, hiring, supervision, evaluation and instruction in K-12 settings. Her work in research, and as a school board member in a large district grounds her expertise in school policy and district and administrative function. As principal and policy-maker, Dr. Rhodes was known for her work in reclaiming failing high schools, including moving an Ohio high school from 8% passage on the state science test to 54.5% in 2 years, collaboratively, within a contractual environment. Dr. Rhodes provides expert witness research, reports & testimony for districts and law firms, representing both plaintiff and defense. Dr. Rhodes' services are available nationally and internationally, as she is culturally competent,traveling, presenting at conferences and observing schools. Previous cases have included student injury, & death, religious/race, disability discrimination, wrongful termination, sexual abuse, administrative supervision, teacher supervision, actions of paraprofessionals including teacher assistants, security guards, and school resource officers, as well as school evaluations & recommendations for domestic cases.
Areas of expertise include:
School and district disciplinary policy & practices
Standards of care and duty for administrative, teacher and school staff
Teacher training/evaluation, administrative training
School climate, culture, SEL (social-emotional learning), trauma-informed practice
Diversity issues within personnel and student settings
Urban school research & new trends in teacher leadership
What does it take to improve science performance in an inner-city high school? Could a science "immersion" strategy change motivation and interest in science? How can we meet a key strategic goal of our urban district: "All students graduate and are prepared for postsecondary education, successful careers and productive citizenship."
Creative professionals in team-based work settings value work communications skills among their colleagues. As public schools create professional learning communities and experiment with teacher-led curriculum and program development, traditional interview processes may prove inadequate for these new collaborative environments. New and creative selection models may be needed to enable teacher or other professional teams to choose candidates with the 21st century skills needed for success. In public sector environments, work rules are often highly developed and professionals are entitled to interview. Qualifications, training, experience and seniority as determinants often get reduced to transfer rights using seniority as the main or only criteria. This trend detracts from creating a competitive environment in which to attract & retain a high-quality teaching staff. Solutions can be found within existing contract parameters, however, if the attributes necessary to teach 21st Century skills are actually required to be demonstrated, not just described, in the interview process.
"All children can learn," is a catchphrase currently making the rounds in education circles, particularly in staff development activities (Pankratz & Petroski, 2003). De facto learning theory challenges the underlying assumptions of this phrase by examining how it is that learning in schools takes place. Using theoretical foundations of Dewey, Maslow, and Vygotsky, this essay will explore the fact that all children are, in fact, learning all the time, regardless of the actions of teachers, the content of the curriculum, or educational policy and practice.
Critical to a dynamic STEM school is a high level of instructional rigor. While this is true in all STEM schools, it is a particular challenge in those programs that serve populations inexperienced with high levels of rigor in their previous coursework.
Establishing a STEM High School (Science, Technology, Engineering, & Mathematics), and the Aiken Environmental, Ohio's first public environmental high school proved to be successful strategies to increase student engagement and raise standardized scores in science. High-poverty urban students from declining academic and disciplinary environments produced significant gains on science test results and credit attainment towards graduation. Using multiple overlapping rigor and SEL strategies, students experienced "science immersion," project-based learning, and a social-emotional curriculum that emphasized personal development and team/community-building skills.
Page Engineering is a professional consulting firm that combines Ergonomics, Industrial Engineering, and Health and Safety expertise. They have served industry leaders in the areas of Transportation, Shipping, Manufacturing, and Health Care throughout the United States and Canada. Established in 1994, their approach is bolstered by years of litigation scrutiny and backed by extensive application of ergonomics, human factors, epidemiologic, and occupational medical scientific literature. They specialize in human factors and ergonomics assessments, including both acute and cumulative exposures and their hands-on approach is backed by extensive research and measurement of actual work exposure to occupational physical factors and workplace design.
Litigation Support - The professionals at Page Engineering provide forensic engineering and root cause analysis expert witness services to counsel representing both Plaintiff and Defense. Their areas of expertise include:
Biomedical Injury Analysis
Biomechanical Injury Analysis
Health and Safety
Physical Demands Assessments
Occupational Accident Reconstruction
Occupational Risk Management
Return to Work
Regulatory and Consensus Standard Initiatives
George B. Page, CPE, is a Certified Professional Ergonomist. Since founding Page Engineering, Mr. Page has been providing ergonomics services, integrating multiple disciplines (industrial engineering, safety, health, business, regulatory) to provide effective results, whether in the application of job analyses and job improvement processes or in physical job demands analyses. His experience includes conducting ergonomics analyses and research in the railroad industry, primarily, and in heavy industry, in general, for over 30 years. Clients include: Union Pacific Railroad, Kansas City Southern Railways, Association of American Railroads, FedEx, American Petroleum Institute, Food Marketing Institute, Food Distributors International, Blue Water Bridge Authority, USPS. His expertise includes job exposure assessments, physical demands assessments, accident reconstruction, forensic engineering.
Greg G. Weames, CPE, CCPE, CRSP, is a Certified Professional Ergonomist who provides forensic services regarding Musculoskeletal Injury / Disorder Risk and expert testimony. Since joining with Page Engineering, Inc., Mr. Weames has been asked to provide consulting services in ergonomics for over 500 cases involving civil lawsuit work-related injury/disorder claims. With training, education and experience in musculoskeletal injury and musculoskeletal disorder as a focus, he applies generally accepted methodology in his analysis of causation to a reasonable degree of scientific certainty. Mr. Weames has his expert witness experience from within the railroad industry, which includes transportation, construction maintenance, mechanical shop, communications and office environments which support a large variety of jobs and work tasks. Over the past 20 years of providing expert witness services, Mr. Weames has relied on independent, objective measurements of claimed exposures to occupational physical factors and the epidemiologic scientific literature, relevant ergonomics guidelines and standards to support his opinions. Mr. Weames has given depositions and has appeared at jury trials in both State and Federal US Court during his years doing expert witness work.
Stephen D. Fleming, CPE, CXLT, is an Industrial Engineer / Ergonomist whose background includes analyzing work environments and work tasks using industrial engineering work measurement methods and risk assessment models for different body regions. His expertise is in assisting industrial clients in applying ergonomics to workplace processes, tools, and equipment, including all major North American railroads, FedEx, Ford Motor Company, Lear Seating, USPS, and the Blue Water Bridge Authority. Mr. Fleming has been acknowledged for developing and implementing a methodology for measuring and analyzing exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) and hand-arm vibration (HAV).
David R. Lenorovitz, PhD, CPE, Lenorovitz is a Board Certified Ergonomist / Human Factors Professional with over 50 years of experience in developing and applying knowledge regarding the ways in which human capabilities and limitations can materially effect a user's performance (i.e., success or failure) when interacting with a variety of products or equipment.
Dr. Lenorovitz has performed HF-related work evaluating, designing, developing, and testing user-interactive-systems for a wide range of industrial, governmental, and individual clients.
Litigation Support - Dr. Lenorovitz's forensic experience has included applying Human Factors scientific principles, preparing analysis reports, providing expert opinions, and testifying in cases involving:
Dr. Palmer Morrel-Samuels is a Research Psychologist with extensive training and experience in Statistical Analysis and Assessment Design. He has done a considerable amount of research and applied work on communication, testified to the U.S. congress on employee motivation and its linkage to objective performance metrics, published several articles on survey design in Harvard Business Review, among others, and wrote several patents to assist in the administration and analysis of workplace assessments. Dr. Morrel-Samuels currently teaches graduate courses on survey design and research methodology at the University of Michigan.
Litigation Services: Dr. Morrel-Samuels' education, practical experience, and distinguished authorship have made him a valuable resource for providing expert services in legal cases where workplace surveys or assessments are at issue, including:
Statistical analysis of very large datasets, measuring the impact of corporate culture on performance and race discrimination.
Analysis of a survey's validity, reliability, objectivity, fairness, accuracy, confidentiality, freedom from response bias, and conformance to The Uniform Guidelines pertaining to all workplace assessments.
Statistical analyses of performance-related and survey-related data.
Desiging and conducting employee and workplace surveys, including Electronic surveys.
Program evaluations, especially when used in hiring, firing, or other job actions.
Expert Witness Experience includes: Assisted the NAACP in its amicus brief for the Ricci discrimination case. Was the sole statistician in a successful $100M breach of contract case (Tower Automotive v. UNOVA) that required analyzing 4 million rows of data. Testified for the ICC’s International Court of Arbitration in The Hague. Has successfully withstood Daubert challenges - most recently from the City of Indianapolis in a large discrimination case involving the city's fire department.
For more information visit our website at www.ExpertWitnessPsychology.com
This might come as a shock: Employees in large corporations sometimes mistakenly believe that they have been discriminated against. Admittedly, discrimination does occur, both in society and in the workplace. And as most attorneys know, many discrimination cases concern claims of either adverse treatment or adverse impact. In both types of litigation, employees believe that they have been discriminated against because of their minority status. In disparate treatment cases, plaintiffs must show that they were treated differently because of that status, and incriminating statements-express or implied-must be admitted as evidence to suggest a discriminatory intent. In contrast, disparate impact cases typically address the discriminatory impact of an ostensibly neutral policy, decision, or program, so plaintiffs rely upon objective data from the entire corporation to prove a discriminatory outcome.
THERE'S NO DOUBT that companies can benefit from workplace surveys and questionnaires. A GTE survey in the mid-1990s, for example} revealed that the performance of its different billing operations, as measured by the accuracy of bills sent out, was closely tied to the leadership style of the unit managers.
This might come as a shock: Employees in large corporations sometimes mistakenly believe that they have been discriminated against. Admittedly, discrimination does occur, both in society and in the workplace. And as most attorneys know, many discrimination cases concern claims of either adverse treatment or adverse impact.
Effective evidence-based managelnent requires analyzing data from a broad array of sources and conducting carefully designed pretest-posttest comparisons. However, our experience suggests that few businesses take that process to the next level by building merged datasets that can be used for rigorous pretest-posttest comparisons and meaningful statistical analyses.
No contemporary guide exists for using statistics to prove causality in court. We outline a new theory explaining comprehension of causal graphs, and claim four hallmarks of causality are critical: Association, Prediction, Exclusion of Alternative Explanations, and Dose Dependence.
We distinguish between reverse discrimination and over-correction, arguing that the former should be used only to describe cases where well-qualified non-minority applicants are unjustifiably denied positions in organizations run by and/or staffed by minorities. Similarly, we argue over-correction should be used to describe well-qualified non-minority applicants who are unjustifiably denied positions in organizations run by non-minorities.
Dr. Caren Goldberg, Ph.D. is an internationally renowned professor of Human Resource Management. She provides expert witness and litigation support services in employment law cases.
Dr. Goldberg has written over 50 peer-reviewed papers and three book chapters on Diversity, Discrimination, Stereotypes, and Sexual Harassment. She has been quoted in numerous magazine and newspapers, and has appeared on Dateline, NBC, Voice of America, and numerous local affiliate news programs to discuss discrimination and harassment. The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM) honored Caren as one of 100 diversity thought leaders from business, consulting, government, and academia, based on her research contributions in this area. More recently, SHRM appointed her to a task force charged with developing professional standards in Diversity and Inclusion.
John Hoschette, BSEE, MSEE is an Electrical Engineer and Engineering Manager with over 25 years of experience at companies such as Smiths Medical, Lockheed Martin, Honeywell, Loral, Alliant Techsystems and Rockwell Collins. This has provided him exposure to the engineering methods of organizations nationwide and an acute understanding of all aspects of an engineering career.
Mr. Hoschette has managed engineering groups as large as 125 people with overall responsibility for business operations, employee salary administration, hiring, termination and career development. He has been involved in cases of employee termination for drugs, layoffs, harassment, non-performance and violation of company business ethics issues.
His primary responsibility as an engineering manager when dealing with employee issues has been to enforce company policies and procedures to ensure fair and lawful handling of employee discipline and terminations cases when necessary. This involves coordination of Human Resources and Legal Counsel to ensure company liability is minimized.
Mr. Hoschette's technical work encompasses developing the next generation mission computers for the F-35, P-3, F-16 and F-22 jet fighter aircraft and his technical expertise is Optical Data Networking. His career has covered designing, testing, and fielding of advanced electronics in areas such as: developing infrared sensors for night vision, laser sensors for weapons, helmet mounted displays and fiber channel networks.
Mr. Hoschette is also an author of two books, “Career Advancement and Survival for Engineers” and “The Engineers Career Guide." He has also been adjunct professor and instructed career development courses for engineers at Tufts University in Boston, Santa Clara University and University of Minnesota.
With the wealth of knowledge available at the click of a mouse, the Internet is a wonderful tool that can really help accelerate your career. But have you ever stopped to consider what information about you might be available to others on the Internet?
The complete, one-stop career resource guide for engineers, engineering managers, and human resources personnel. This book offers proven, commonsense advice for navigating all stages of your engineering career. Packed with real-world tips supported by actual work experiences and examples.
his book is packed with useful tips for excelling in the corporate environment. It is all about the "whens" and "hows" of making a good impression and achieving the greatest impact. This is not a technical book--it focuses more on how to deal with the organization.
Lending Banking Operations Expert Witnesses Bank Resources and Solutions
Bank Resources and Solutions, a division of FIRSINC, is an executive management consulting group that has provided Financial, Operations, and Regulatory / Compliance consulting services nationwide to financial institutions, attorneys and regulatory authorities since 2008. Litigation Consulting, Forensic Research and Expert Witness work are an important focus of our services. We have worked with attorneys and regulators on suits throughout the United States. Their work has included both plaintiff and defendant financial institutions, borrowers, depositors, vendors and regulators.
Areas of Litigation Support Expertise: Board of Direcotrs and Executive Management Administration, , Commercial, Residential and Consumer Lending, Bankruptcy Suits, Employee Criminal Actions / Bribery, Branch Operations, Bank Secrecy Act Policies / Procedures, Wire Transfers, New Account Fraud, Trust Account Fraud, Bank Negligence and Foreign Checks.
Mark C. Riley is an experienced and successful former Bank Chief Executive Officer whose background includes leading the turnaround of two banks that had been operating under regulatory agreements upon arrival. Mr. Riley’s relevant experience was overseeing all areas of his banks including the development, approval, and implementation of effective risk management programs. For example, as CEO, Mr. Riley was involved in all phases of lending from business development to credit analysis and underwriting to overseeing loan approval and review process, providing due diligence of client bank loan portfolios, developing and overseeing workouts of nonperforming loans. This is particularly important in Expert Witness support as Mr. Riley’s background will carry more weight than technical specialists such as Loan Officers. Using loan officers, analysts and even lending group managers can provide the technical side of lending (underwriting, documentation, recordation and related nuts and bolts). As a Bank CEO & Director with lending expertise, Mr. Riley can provide all of that, but more importantly to a lawsuit, is knowledge of Director Loan Committees and their response to weaknesses that occurred in the technical side and what actions did they take to ameliorate or exacerbate the problem. Mr. Riley has provided Expert Witness services, including consulting, reports, depositions and testimony, to attorneys representing the FDIC, banks, bank clients, and related companies.
Susan E. C. Riley is an experienced Senior Officer whose background includes the total responsibility for creating and managing the enterprise-wide systems of two denovo banks. Her relevant experience also includes creating and managing the Human Resources Department, Compliance, IT and IT Security, BSA/AML, ACH, Vendor Management, and related contract negotiations and Retail Bank Management. As co-founder of Bank Resources and Solutions, Mrs. Riley has analyzed, recommended, and implemented complex banking software within tight guidelines. She has established a solid reputation as a “no nonsense, identify the challenges, develop effective strategies and get the solutions in place” administrator. Mrs. Riley has provided Expert Witness research and consultation in client v. bank and bank v. client related matters.
After over 34 years in bank management, including being Director, President and CEO of two banks, providing expert witness services to attorneys representing banks, bank customers, vendors and regulators has illuminated some fundamental certainties in U.S. financial services.
MCS Associates is a nationally recognized consulting group that has provided financial, operations and regulatory/compliance consulting services nationwide to financial institutions, insurance companies and regulatory agencies as well as real estate and financial services organizations for over 40 years. Expert Witness and Litigation Consulting are a primary focus of our services. We undertake expert witness assignments throughout the United States and our clients include several hundred leading law firms around the country, working on behalf of both plaintiff and defendant financial institutions, borrowers, depositors, investors, developers, insurance companies and their insured, securities/insurance/real estate brokers/agents, regulators and government agencies, and individuals.
Together with MCS Associates’ specialized resources in banking, financial services and real estate, we also draw on key strategic alliances in insurance, economics, academia and the securities industry to meet a wide range of expert witness needs. Our litigation experts include experienced bankers, lenders, consultants, regulators, managers, brokers & agents in insurance, real estate, and securities; insurance claims and underwriting managers; economists, accountants, appraisers, real estate analysts, and academics.
Aaron T. Olson, has decades of experience In Human Resources and Human Resources Training. Mr. Olson's company, A.T. Olson Consulting, LLC, is certified by the U. S. Department of Veterans Affairs Center for Verification and Evaluation (CVE) as a Verified Service-Disabled Veteran Owned Small Business (SDVOSB); and the State of Oregon's Certification Office for Business Inclusion and Diversity (COBID) as a Service-Disabled Veteran Business Enterprise (SDVBE) and Emerging Small Business (ESB).
Background Experience: Mr. Olson has over 26 years of police experience managing assignments in communications, recruitment, and patrol. He supervised and evaluated both police and non-police employees. He was a member of the OSP Procedures and Rules Advisory Committee and worked with Oregon's Department of Justice in rewriting and validating OSP's trooper and cadet applicant hiring process. Mr. Olson had the honor of being a member of the first Oregon State Police Affirmative Action Recruiting Team.
As a patrol supervisor, Mr. Olson directed major crime scenes and traffic crash investigations. He reviewed and approved administrative, police, and use of force reports. He also investigated allegations of police officer misconduct, conducted background checks, and participated in specialized tasks in community policing, dignitary protection with the U.S. Secret Service and other law enforcement agencies. In reaching out to new immigrants and refugees, Mr. Olson initiated the "Police and Emergency Services" workshops at the Immigrant Refugee Community Organization (IRCO) in Portland, Oregon.
Mr. Olson is regular adjunct professor at Portland Community College (PCC), Portland, Oregon, and Eastern Oregon University (EOU), La Grande, Oregon. At PCC, Mr. Olson currently teaches cultural diversity online and campus criminal justice classes. He also teaches an online class on civil liability in criminal justice. At EOU, he teaches an online multiculturalism in emergency services course. He established history by designing the first cultural diversity courses and curricula for PCC's criminal justice program in 2001, fire protection program in 2009, and EOU's fire service administration program in 2011.
Litigation Support: Mr. Olson meets the criteria of an expert witness as outlined in the Federal Rules of Evidence. He also meets the criteria of an expert witness as outlined in the Oregon Revised Statutes. He has been deposed as an expert witness several times. Mr. Olson's services are available to attorneys representing plaintiff and defendant and include diagnostics, thorough reporting, depositions, arbitration hearings, and trial testimony as needed.
Areas of Expertise:
Communications: Basic, Advanced and Cross Cultural
Conflict Resolution, Mediation and Problem Solving
Cultural Diversity Awareness and Competency
Employee Performance, Evaluations and Work Plans
Review Employer, Government and Media Investigations
Review of Government Policies and Procedures
Review of Police Procedures and Investigations
Review of Bias, Discrimination, Harassment, Retaliation, Complaints
Review of Workforce Policies, Investigations, and Reports
A classic text in peacekeeping, cultural awareness, and diversity in law enforcement. It provides practical information and insight to prepare officers for culturally sensitive policing. The content explores the pervasive influences of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, and sexual orientation in the workplace and in multicultural communities.
As the fire service becomes a microcosm of American society, this book provides a useful tool to effectively address key issues and challenges of cultural diversity. It offers valuable lessons on cultural competence, the value of cultural differences, and the acquisition of cross-cultural skills to be used in fire science college courses or fire academies at the city, fire-district, state or federal level.