Cocaine remains a popular drug of abuse, and per HHS (2008) of 6.5 million US Federal workplace drug tests, about 40,000 were positive for cocaine in 2007. Drug testing for cocaine is based on the metabolite benzoylecogonine which is detectable in the user’s urine for 24 hours, possibly even up to 72 hours. Non-metabolized cocaine may only be detectable for 4-6 hours following use, making it a less useful target in a drug testing program.
Presumptive tests, also known as preliminary tests or field tests, allow drugs to be quickly classified into a particular chemical group, but do not unequivocally identify the presence of a specific chemical compound. Preliminary drug test results are often included in a panel of tests, which then be used as a guide to an appropriate confirmatory test to determine and verify the chemical compounds present.
Benzene is a highly volatile aromatic hydrocarbon solvent which is present in most petroleum distillates such as Stoddard solvent and mineral spirits. Recent advances in the purification process for these solvents has reduced the benzene content significantly, but it is still present in products such as WD-40 and Liquid Wrench as well as many solvents used in the printing industry and elsewhere.
Lead is ubiquitous in our environment. It used to be contained in gasoline but has now been replaced. It has been used in pipes, ceramic glazes, paints, and solder, among other sources. Exposure can be oral through ingestion of food or water or by inhalation from lead-containing dust or dirt.
Cocaine users may exhibit behavioral deficits. These include deficits in attention, learning, memory, executive function, and response speed.
Methadone is an opioid thought to act by decreasing release of neurotransmitters in the brain resulting in respiratory suppression and, in some cases, death.
Nongenotoxic bladder carcinogens that form bladder calculi have been concluded to be of low carcinogenic risk to humans because bladder stones would be expelled or surgically removed before they had a chance to exert their carcinogenic effect.
CRUDE OIL is a complex mixture of chemicals, some volatile and some water soluble.
Acetaminophen is an analgesic (pain reliever) and anti-pyretic (controls fever) medication that is sold over-the-counter — without a prescription. More than 200 pain relievers and cold remedies under various trade names, including Tylenol, contain acetaminophen.
Hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide are two sulfur-based gases that exhibit entirely different toxicological characteristics. Litigation issues involving these two gases are as different as are their disparate toxic effects in humans