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Manufacturing Engineering Expert Witnesses

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William Acorn, P.E., FASHRAE
Principal
10617 N Hayden Rd, Suite B-108
Scottsdale AZ 85260
USA
phone: (602) 888-7250
fax: 520-577-0851
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William Acorn Technology Analysis ExpertWilliam R. Acorn is founder of Acorn Consulting Services, LLC, an engineering firm. As a consulting mechanical engineer, Bill provides project analysis, forensic reconstructions and litigation support services relating to the design, delivery and functioning of high-tech manufacturing facilities, semiconductor fabrication facilities, institutional laboratories, data centers, health care facilities and a variety of commercial buildings. He is a recognized expert in the evaluation of deficiencies in HVAC systems, cleanrooms, piping systems, refrigeration systems, construction defects, building and fire code compliance, and patent and trade secret disputes. He represents both plaintiffs and defendants.

Bill has more than 40 years of experience as a professional engineer and is a recognized expert in assessing, evaluating, remediating and providing testimony on complex project design, construction and operational matters. His consulting expertise has been influential in shaping approaches to code compliance and life safety in semiconductor and similar advanced technology facilities.

  • Registered as a Professional Mechanical Engineer in the States of Arizona, California, Colorado, Illinois, Iowa, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, Oregon, Texas, Washington and Utah.
  • Registered with the National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying NCEES (Certificate No. 6999)
  • Fellow in the HVAC industry leading organization ASHRAE
  • Visiting lecturer at the Arizona State University Del E. Webb School of Construction in Tempe, AZ
  • Advisor to CREATE, ACE – Alliance for Construction Excellence and the IAB – Industry Advisory Board, all affiliated with ASU

    Building Systems Analysis:

  • HVAC and Refrigeration
  • Process and Power Piping
  • Plumbing Systems
  • Standard of Care in Design and Construction
  • Chemical Exposures in the Workplace
  • Cleanroom Design and Performance
  • Codes and Standards
  • Patent and Trade Secret Disputes

    Bill’s pragmatic approach to both forensic and litigation consulting as well as project consulting is based on more than 40 years of real-world experience as a design professional, mentor and forensic analyst, as well as many years as an instructor in professional and academic settings.

    Litigation Support:

  • Forensic Analysis
  • Strategic Litigation Consulting
  • Trial Demonstratives
  • Expert Testimony

    Forensic Analysis, litigation consulting and expert testimony. Represented both plaintiffs and defendants in a variety of jurisdictions throughout the US and Asia.

    Bill’s ability to explain complex issues to non-technical audiences, including juries, mediators and judges, is a key to successfully solving your litigation challenges.

    Consulting Services:

    Services range from peer review to conceptual design to development of strategies and programs for expedited project delivery.

    Bill frequently acts as an owner’s agent and mentor, functioning as an extension of the owner’s project team. On other projects, Bill serves as a subject matter expert assisting project delivery firms in their development of viable solutions and review of construction documents.

    As a project consultant, Bill assures the project gets off to the right start and provides his expertise through completion and operation to maximize return on investment.

    Consulting Expertise Includes:

  • Project Design and Management Consulting
  • Forensic Analysis and Litigation Consulting
  • Mentoring & Advanced Education
  • 4/11/2005 · Construction
    Introduction: In our first Volume of the Forensic Exchanger, we discussed some of the all too many reasons why HVAC systems fail. If you missed that edition and are interested in that topic e-mail us and we will gladly send it to you. We will follow up with more discussion of that important topic in later editions

    William R. Acorn
    Facilities which utilize hazardous liquids and gases represent a significant potential liability to the owner, operator, and general public in terms of personnel safety and preservation of assets. It is obvious that a catastrophic incident or loss of property or personnel is to be avoided at all costs. This book was conceived to give the reader a guide to understanding the requirements of the various codes and regulations that apply to the design, construction, and operation of facilities utilizing hazardous materials in their processes.
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    Steven R. Thomas, P.E.
    Multiple Addresses (See Below)
    NJ, NH, ME, MA, VT ,RI, CT, NY, PA ,DE, USA
    phone: 877-267-7855
    fax: 973-401-0056 or 603-293-4142
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    New Jersey Office:
    PMB 4066
    55 Madison Avenue - Ste 400
    Morristown, NJ 07960
    T: (973) 401-0010
    F: (973) 401-0056
    New Hampshire Office:
    Analytic Engineering
    105 Juniper Ridge Road
    Gilford, NH 03249
    T: (603) 293-4477
    F: (603) 293-4142


    Analytic Engineering combines Professional Engineering with Effective Communication. We offer Technical Analysis and Services in the Engineering field and provide experienced Expert Testimony to communicate the conclusions reached.

    Engineering Services:
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Safety Engineering
  • Vehicular Accident Reconstruction
  • Failure Analysis
  • Computer Animation
  • Premises Liability
  • Patent Claim Analysis
  • Product Design & Liabilty
  • Product & Equipment
  • Design Engineering Services
  • Steven R. Thomas, PE, the Principal Engineer at Analytic Engineering, earned his Bachelor of Science - Engineering (Mechanical and Electrical) at Widener University, Chester, PA in 1979 and a Master of Science in Engineering Science (Safety Engineering and Human Factors) at The New Jersey Institute of Technology in 1997.

    Professional Experience: Steven R. Thomas, P.E. has worked for such organizations as General Motors, Thomas & Betts, General Cable and Breed Automotive Corporation. He has worked in the engineering fields of Research and Development, Product Design, Machine Design, Manufacturing, Industrial, Tooling, Safety, Facility Design, Failure Analysis and Accident Reconstruction. Since 1991 Mr. Thomas has worked as an Engineering Consultant in the Forensic field and has testified in numerous jurisdictions.
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    John L. Ryan, BSME, PE
    Business Headquarters:
    PO Box 7
    Poncha Springs, CO 8142
    Offices in: CO, MI, AR, USA
    phone: 855-627-6273
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    John L. Ryan, BSME, P.E. is a Mechanical Engineer who provides general Mechanical and Structural Engineering expertise. Mechanical and Safety Engineering (MASE) provides full service analysis and accident reconstruction of products involved in accidents. Mr. Ryan's services have been requested for attorneys and insurance companies needing forensic engineering expert witness testimony to determine whether machinery and products involved in injury cases were adequately designed or whether they have a Design, Manufacturing, or Material Defect. All products are lab-tested on site to determine adherence to industry standards and engineering design protocol. Alternate preventative designs are developed when none exist commercially.

    Mr. Ryan is available for both Plaintiff and Defense, depending on the individual case. His services include producing high quality reports and visual aids in the courtroom such as scale models to help explain accident scenarios and alternate designs to judges and juries.

    Areas of Expertise:
    • Accident Investigation and Reconstruction
    • Machine Guarding Accident Investigation
    • Ladder Failure Investigation
    • Design Defect Analysis
    • Structural Analysis of Buildings
    • Product Liability Investigations
    • Crash Data Retrieval
    • General Engineering Injuries and Issues
    • Industrial safety
    • Engineering Continuing Education
    • Product Certification
    View John Ryan's Consulting Profile.
    Tree stand accidents occur frequently during hunting season, causing a variety of injuries from broken bones to paralysis and death. Tree stand accidents involve a variety of causes, including falls from the tree stand, collapse of the tree stand, fires, self inflicted gunshot wounds, and asphyxiation. A study by the Center for Disease Control examined hunting accidents from 1979-1989. 214 of 594 deer hunting related accidents involved tree stands. 52% of these tree stand accidents were due to falls from the stand, 32% were due to collapse of the tree stands.

    This issue of Forensic Clues is the second installment of an examination of ladder accidents. Last month we explored stepladders, this month we will be discussing extension ladders. Ladder accidents are a very common occurrence. Over half a million people annually seek medical attention due to ladder accidents. Over three hundred people are killed yearly in these often preventable accidents. This is a serious problem.

    Ladder accidents occur frequently, often with very serious consequences. Ladders are tools that people use repeatedly, at home and on the job. The CPSC (Consumer Product Safety Commission) states that there are more than 164,000 emergency room-treated injuries annually due to ladders in the United States.

    7/27/2015 · Engineering
    The nursery rhyme involving Humpty Dumpty is a child's first lesson in safety. What would keep Humpty Dumpty safe as he is sitting on the wall? A warning or a railing?

    6/29/2015 · OSHA
    The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that between 1,600 and 2,000 amputations occur annually due to power press operation. Another 18,000 people receive less serious injuries annually. Injury statistics compiled by OSHA for the years 1975 through 1983 confirm these figures. These numbers are alarming and unnecessarily high. Power presses can be used safely when the presses are properly designed to minimize the hazard that the operator is exposed to.

    5/26/2015 · Machinery
    Every year there are thousands of debilitating injuries and deaths on farms. Many of these are related to power take-off's (PTO's). PTO shafts are used to power various farming implements, from mowers, hay balers, augers, and many other types of farming machinery. The PTO shaft was invented in the 1930's. The PTO shaft is essentially a shaft powered by the tractor engine that rotates at high speeds, providing power for a wide array of implements. While this provides a convenient source of power to drive farm implements, serious accidents can occur due to entanglement in PTO's. PTO's must be properly equipped with guards including master shields which covers the stub shaft and universal joint. These shields prevent inadvertent contact with the rotating machinery. Contact with unshielded rotating PTO parts can instantly pull a person into the PTO, causing catastrophic damage.

    Rock and ice climbing have become increasingly popular in recent years. Climbing is now a popular form of exercise and adventure, and a great way to enjoy the outdoors. Unfortunately the greater numbers involved in the sport has led to greater number of accidents. Climbing gyms have brought climbing to areas without outdoor rock resources. These indoor gyms use artificial holds to simulate rock walls. Indoor climbing gyms typically have climbs ranging from twenty feet to fifty feet, or more. Bouldering areas are shorter in height, with adequate padding to protect climbers from falls without the need for ropes.

    While many accidents involving products are the result of a product defect that leads to injury of the product user, accidents can also be the result of a failure caused by lack of maintenance or inspection. This issue of Clues will examine the theory behind failure to maintain accidents, as well as provide examples of common accidents that are due to a lack of maintenance.

    Material science is a broad field that has applications in numerous fields. In product injury cases, material science can help identify defects, determine causes of accidents, determine failure modes, and identify inconsistent manufacturing processes.

    1/21/2015 · Product Liability
    No one likes to see children get hurt, especially when it could be prevented. Poor design, manufacturing defects, material defects, assembly errors, and the lack of a hazard analysis can result in hazardous products that injure people. Many products are put in stores that may have never been looked at by a design engineer and/or a safety specialist.

    Fishing and boating accidents result in thousands of injuries each year. The U.S. Coast Guard reported 3331 injuries and 709 fatalities due to boating accidents on both recreational and commercial vessels. There are many causes for these accidents, including collisions with objects or other vessels, drowning, electrical and mechanical failures, interaction with unguarded machinery, and others. There are various acts and laws that govern accidents at sea. This issue of Forensic Clues will examine some of the preventable accidents caused by defective machinery and equipment that occur at sea, and a brief overview of the laws and regulations affecting product liability litigation related to maritime accidents.

    Paintball is a fun activity for all ages, and can be a safe sport if proper precautions are made. Serious eye injury can occur if a paintball impacts the eyeball, making goggles and facemask a requisite part of paintball. Accidents happen in backyard paintball games most frequently, but also at commercial paintball operations. This Clues will examine the typical preventable paintball accidents, as well as examine product failures that can lead to accidents while playing paintball.

    Accident reconstruction involves attempting to determine the sequence of events of an accident and is a crucial part of product liability cases. Understanding exactly what occurred in an accident gives an engineer the best chance of preventing the accident from occurring again. Often there is limited information to base conclusions on what really happened in an accident. Understanding what goes into accident reconstruction will help attorneys understand what information is crucial to this process. Witness testimony is unreliable at best but must be analyzed and cross referenced with the other available information.

    Lawnmowers cause over 50,000 emergency-room visits every year, based on NEISS data on consumer product injuries. These injuries are distributed evenly between ride-on and walk-behind style mowers. The necessary cutting action of a mower results in an inherent hazard, until technology is developed that can cut grass but not living tissue. While various safety advances over the years have reduced the amount of injuries, the extremely high number of accidents related to mowers that continue to occur show the need for further enhancement of product safety.

    Machine guarding accidents cause many accidents and fatalities every year, despite the availability of modern safety technology. In the years from 1992-1996, one study from the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) reported annual injuries due to workers being caught in machinery of 34,350. In 2012 contact with an object or equipment had the second highest workplace fatality rate at 712 deaths.

    6/10/2014 · OSHA
    OSHA was created through the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970. OSHA's mission is to ensure worker safety by creating and enforcing safety and health standards. OSHA does many good things to help maintain a safe workplace, but manufacturers often try to hide behind the shield of OSHA, putting blame on an employer for unsafe machinery or working conditions, when often the machinery was never safe to begin with. Some standards promote safety and some standards protect the manufacturer from product liability law suits. Most industrial standards are voluntary, unless they are specifically referenced in a Code of Federal Regulations / OSHA standard. OSHA standards are Federally mandated and are enforced by the Federal government.

    Stored energy is accumulated energy, which can release suddenly, potentially causing serious injury or death. Stored energy has many forms, including pressurized gases and liquids, stored mechanical energy, stored electrical energy, and gravitational potential energy. Stored energy is particularly dangerous because the hazard still exists when the original source of energy is removed. This issue of Clues will explain the various forms of hazardous stored energy, how these energies can cause damage or injuries, and how to prevent stored energy accidents.

    Table saw accidents occur frequently, often resulting in serious accidents when the operator comes in contact with the saw blade. The difficulties in guarding table saw blades with conventional guarding techniques often leads to ineffective guards that are removed by saw operators due to their lack of function and flexibility.

    2/26/2014 · Failure Analysis
    A significant number of elderly persons experience falls every year. In 2010, 2.3 million nonfatal fall injuries involving elderly people were treated in emergency rooms around the country. In the same year, 21,700 elderly people died as the result of unintentional falls. Falls for elderly people are extremely hazardous as they may not recover from fractures and other injuries.

    1/22/2014 · Product Liability
    Product Liability Reform has affected many attorneys, consumers, and experts negatively while failing in its goal of greater American competitiveness. This issue of Forensic Clues is dedicated to addressing the problems of tort reform, how this affects you, and what you as an attorney can do to reduce your costs and increase your chances of a successful product liability case, assuming that the case involves a legitimate product defect.

    A recent failure of a ski lift in Wisconsin has received much media attention. While accidents such as these are rare, they do occur. Much more frequent are accidents involving collisions with other people or objects. This issue of Forensic Clues will examine the types of accidents that occur on the mountains.

    11/11/2013 · Failure Analysis
    Powered winches are in use in a variety of applications, some of the most common include vehicle-mounted electric winches, marine vessel winches, marine recovery winches, industrial winches and chain hoists. Accidents occur in all types of winch uses.

    Between 1982 and 1996, 2,795 people died riding all-terrain vehicles, ATV's. This was found in a study by the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC). Over thirty percent of the riders killed were under the age of sixteen.

    9/26/2013 · Failure Analysis
    In 2007, an estimated 15,147 lives were saved from seat belt use. Seat belts save five times more lives than airbags, according to statistics released by NHTSA. Seat belt use has increased over the years, due to cultural trends, and possibly due to the enactment of seat belt use laws. Seat belt systems do not always function as predicted. Seat belt systems can fail during a collision, often resulting in serious injury or death to the vehicle occupant.

    Farming is a dangerous occupation. Tractor rollover accidents have been killing people since the 1920's. In 1990, the National Safety Council estimated 460 people were killed while operating tractors. Tractor rollover caused 239 of these fatalities. Another estimate suggests a more conservative number of annual fatalities - 132, that are the result of tractor rollover accidents. In a four-year period in Pennsylvania alone, 72 people died as a result of tractor rollover accidents.

    Automobile collisions result in damage to property and injuries to people. Compensation is sought through insurance claims, law suits, and product liability claims. Knowing when injuries are more or less severe than is warranted by the damage level involved in the collision is important information. This can help people involved on both sides of litigation or settlements.

    7/23/2013 · Warnings & Labels
    Warning labels are an indelible part of our society. Warning labels are everywhere - on our food, on our drinks, on our sweeteners, on our cars, on our tools, on our cigarettes. As consumers we are constantly barraged with multitudes of warnings, cautions, don't do this's, don't do that's.

    Safety Engineering Resources has had the opportunity to learn a great deal about using fiberglass in structural applications, which are simply applications that must support some sort of load. Using fiberglass as a structural material was brought about by the advances made by organic chemists in recent decades in the field of plastics.

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that approximately 95,000 injuries occur each year due to forklifts.

    5/14/2013 · Failure Analysis
    Two and a half million rear-end collisions occur every year. Rear-end collisions are usually caused by driver inattentiveness.

    Structural failures of buildings range from catastrophic building failures involving mass loss of life and/or property to structural problems such as sagging floors or ceilings, leaning walls, cracking or sinking foundations.

    Golf cart accident frequency has increased dramatically over the last 20 years. A study by Watson, Mehan, Smith, and McKenzie (Golf Cart-Related Injuries in the U.S., American Journal of Preventative Medicine, 2008) of NEISS data found 147,696 people were treated in emergency rooms for golf cart accidents between 1990 and 2006.

    12/27/2012 · Engineering
    Knowing when a personal injury case is due to the action or inaction of another party, or when responsibility falls fully on the injured party, can be a difficult distinction to make. At Mechanical and Safety Engineering, we have been investigating personal injury cases for decades.

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    Thomas Read, PhD
    Principal
    1435 Fulton Rd.
    Santa Rosa CA 95403
    USA
    phone: 707-544-2374
    fax: 707-544-2370
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    Expert Background: Dr. Thomas L. Read is the Principal and CEO at A. Read Consulting, LLC. He received his PhD. from Stanford University in 1972 and has over 25 years of manufacturing experience in electronics, metallurgy, factory safety, failure analysis, glass fracture, glass failure and bottle failure. As a member of the electronics industry, he has earned process patents and has an extensive background in manufacturing techniques.

    In parallel, Dr. Read has spent over twenty five years as a consultant to attorneys and engineers. He has given more than 100 depositions and has appeared in court numerous times.

    Company Profile: Read Consulting, LLC is a full service laboratory providing services in the following areas:
  • Failure Analysis; Factory Safety and Personal Injury (including machine guards and manufacturing safety)
  • Glass Failure Analysis - Glass Fracture, Glass Failures and Bottle Failure
  • Metal and Ceramic Failure
  • Grinding Wheel Failures
  • Intellectual Property and Patent Disputes
  • Product Liability and Product Quality
  • Manufacturing Disagreements (such as Intellectual Property, Failed equipment and Contract Disputes)
  • Reverse Engineering
  • As "water hammer" (i.e. liquid impact) has the potential to cause glass bottle failure, Read Consulting LLC created two such failures to study the resulting fracture surface details.

    4/23/2015 · Failure Analysis
    Read Consulting was asked to determine why a welded chair failed and caused injury to the person sitting in it.

    The root cause of the failure of customer returns of heated automobile rear view mirrors was investigated.

    During normal operation, the arm on an automatic wafer test station failed. Root cause failure analysis determined that the drive shaft on the right angle gear motor used to raise and lower the manipulator arm had failed first.

    5/21/2012 · Failure Analysis
    This grinding wheel was part of a product liability and personnel injury case. It was claimed that the subject wheel had unexpectedly failed (i.e. flown apart) and an escaping piece had hit the plaintiff in the face causing serious injuries. According to the user, the grinder with the wheel was purchased approximately one hour before the grinding wheel failure.

    3/29/2012 · Failure Analysis
    A failed plastic lawn chair was examined to determine the cause of failure. This chair failed on the premises of a restaurant In this study the subject chair is examined and compared to several exemplar purchased at the same time. The objective of this study is to determine the cause of failure.

    11/8/2011 · Failure Analysis
    Glass Failure Analysis Expert Witness performs a failure analysis of a several tempered glass doors that had "spontaneously" failed at a construction site. The objective of this glass failure analysis is to determine the cause of failure and make recommendations to the contractor.

    8/30/2011 · Failure Analysis
    Materials failure analysis expert performs a failure analysis to determine the source of a metal piece found in tomato product.

    5/17/2011 · Failure Analysis
    A plumbing failure analysis was performed to determine why a cold water supply line to a bathroom sink had failed after only one year of service.

    A glass failure expert witness performs a root cause failure analysis on an exploding beer bottle. The object of this root cause failure analysis is to determine the cause of the bottle failure.

    7/7/2009 · Design
    Before expending the effort necessary to reverse engineer a device or object, it must be definite that the object under study is not covered by one or more patents. This avoids a dispute over patent violations. Once it has been established that no patent coverage exists, one can use multiple techniques to reverse engineer a product. These are summarized below:

    The cracked tank was first inspected in the "as received" condition. In this condition it was cracked, but it was still whole. Next, the failed tank was separated by pulling it apart. This was done to expose the fracture surfaces of the main crack. This allowed for a complete failure analysis and for a determination of where the crack initiated.

    Glass fractography is the most effective method for determining why a glass object, such as a bottle, failed. This technique consists of examining the fracture surfaces of the failure for artifacts such as Wallner lines and using them to trace the crack back to its origin. Once the origin has been identified, it can be examined in detail with a microscope to determine the cause of the failure.

    1/28/2006 · Failure Analysis
    Note: Glass Fractography is the most effective method for determining why a glass object, such as a bottle, failed. This technique consists of examining the fracture surfaces of the failure for artifacts such as Wallner lines and using them to trace the crack back to its origin

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    Matthew Warren
    Main Contact
    Mail: PO Box 1608
    Visit: 7805 Saint Andrews Road
    Irmo SC 29063
    USA
    phone: 888- 827-7823 / 803-732-6600
    fax: 803-732-7576
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    Warren Forensic Engineers and Consultants, founded in 1997, is extremely well versed in the disciplines of Mechanical, Electrical, Chemical, Structural, and Fire and Explosion investigation. Their engineers are known for delivering the truth — origin, cause, responsibility, and cost of an event or claim — with unmistakable clarity. Warren Forensics provides technical investigations and analyses of personal injury and property claims as well as expert testimony for insurance adjusters and attorneys. Each member of their engineering team is a licensed professional engineer (P.E.) in multiple states. Beyond engineering expertise, their engineers and consultants also hold a variety of other certifications including Certified Fire and Explosion Investigator, Certified Vehicle Fire Investigator, Certified Fire Investigation Instructor, CMSE®-Certified Machine Safety Expert, Certified Safety Professional, Certified Building Inspector, and Certified Property and Evidence Specialist. Types of Loss:

    • Chemical: Ammonia - Confined Space - OSHA


    • Collision: Animal - ATV - Automotive - Bicycle - Farm Equipment - Motorcycle - Pedestrian - Truck


    • Commercial: Construction Defects - Construction Related Losses - Electrical and Control Systems - Liability Claims - Lightning Damage - Mechanical Systems - Roofing - Slip, Trip and Fall - Structural - Water Damage - Workplace Injuries


    • Fires and Explosions: Boiler - Commercial - CSST - Dust Explosions - Electrical - Fire Protection Systems - Industrial - LP and Natural Gas - Machinery and Equipment - Marine - Residential - Spontaneous Combustion - Structural - Vehicle and Mobile Equipment - Welding and Hot Work


    • Industrial: Boilers and Pressure Vessels - Construction Defects - Construction Related Losses - Cranes, Hoists, Lifting and Rigging - Electrical and Control Systems - Industrial Process Equipment - Liability Claims - Lightning Damage - Machinery and Equipment - Material Handling - Mechanical Systems - Roofing - Slip, Trip and Fall - Structural - Water Damage - Workplace Injuries


    • Inland and Ocean: Boilers and Pressure Vessels - Bulk Material Handling - Cargo Damage Assessment - Cargo Handling - Cranes, Hoists, Lifting and Rigging - Docks and Piers - Machinery and Equipment - Marinas - Marine Collisions - Marine Fire Protection Systems - Marine Liability Analysis - Mechanical and Electrical Systems - Slip, Trip and Fall - Workplace Injuries


    • Residential: Construction Defects - Construction Related Losses - Electrical Systems - Lightning Damage - Mechanical Systems - Roofing - Slip, Trip and Fall - Structural - Water Damage


    • Subrogation: Consumer Products - Electrical - Fire and Explosions - Machinery and Equipment - Workers’ Compensation


    6/27/2018 · Corrosion
    When thinking about the safe operation of boilers (and don't we all?), several systems can readily be named; flame control, fuel/air ratio; steam pressure control, levels in the vessel, etc. What about the water? It seems so passive, as long as there is enough for level control, what's the big deal? Well, it turns out, that as the steam produced by a boiler is used in the process, the condensate from that steam is returned to the boiler as feedwater. However, since 100% of the condensate is not returned, whatever solids had been in that water before it evaporated to form steam are left in the remaining water. Fresh feedwater is added to maintain levels, but even fresh water contains some dissolved solids. So over time, the water in the boiler system gets saturated with all sorts of dissolved minerals.