Peter J. Sullivan is a World Class Certified ASE Technician and ASE Certified Master Technician in Heavy Duty Truck, Passenger Car / Light Truck, Collision Repair, and Machinist, (National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence). He has over 35 years of technical, academic, operational, and managerial experience in the private and commercial transportation, heavy equipment, marine, and recreational vehicle industries.
Mr. Sullivan has extensive experience performing vehicle inspections and downloads of event data recorders and electronically stored information (ESI), including analysis, validation, testing, and preservation on almost all makes and models of vehicles and equipment.
Litigation Support - Mr. Sullivan utilizes his comprehensive legal, technical, and FMCSA / DOT knowledge to specialize in:
Product Defect Cases
Driver or Motor Carrier Compliance
Electronic Engine Control (ECM)
Electronic Throttle Control
Electronic Power Steering
He and his team perform accident site and vehicle inspections, perform data downloads, including analysis, on most all makes and models of vehicles and equipment, reconstruct accidents, perform exemplar and product testing, metallurgical testing, fluid analysis, and CMV driver and motor carrier compliance analysis. His primary areas of expertise include medium duty / heavy duty truck, hy-rail, light duty car / truck, motorcycle, ATV, marine, heavy equipment, machinery, tire, bicycle, commercial motor carrier safety and DOT compliance, and commercial motor vehicle driver / operator qualification and compliance, and job site safety.
Mr. Sullivan's services are available to counsel representing both Plaintiff and Defense. His litigation support services also include expert reports, depositions, and testimony for trial, OSHA, and governmental hearings.
Ralph Aronberg, P.E., has reconstructed over 1,500 accidents and has testified in over 150 jury trials, since founding the firm in 1983. He provides Expert Witness services in the areas of:
Traffic accident reconstruction (cars, trucks, motorcycles and pedestrians).
Vehicle occupant kinematics (seatbelts)
Traffic engineering design (geometrics, signing, markings, signals and lighting)
Sight distance analysis
Hazardous roadway conditions
Work Zone Traffic Control evaluation
Evaluation of roadway curvature
Traffic signal operations
Computerized accident reconstruction and simulation
Vehicle "black box" data retrieval (certified>
Mr. Aronberg is published in the fields of pedestrian / bicycle / motorcycle accident reconstructions, and 3 Dimensional Animations and Scientific Visualizations through the Society of Automotive Engineers. Mr. Aronberg is a Fellow member of the National Academy of Forensic Engineers, and certified as a Diplomat in forensic Engineering.
Carl Berkowitz, PE, Ph.D., AICP, is a Transportation and Traffic Engineering expert with almost 50 years of expertise. He's held various managerial and administrative positions in the transportation industry, government, private, and academic sectors.
Dr. Berkowitz has extensive multi-modal experience in planning, design, engineering, safety, security, construction, maintenance, operations, and management. He has written and edited numerous reports, studies, articles, and columns for major publications, journals, newspapers and scholarly periodicals.
Transportation and Traffic Engineering Consultant, 1988 - Present
New York City Department of Transportation, New York, 1970 – 88
New York State Office of Planning Coordination, New York, 1967 - 70
New York State Department of Transportation, Babylon, NY, 1963 - 67
New York City Transit Authority, New York, 1962 - 63
Litigation Support - Dr. Berkowitz has served as a litigation consultant since 1997. He has the background and experience to make him ideally suited to contribute important information at every stage in the litigation process. Dr. Berkowitz is able to explain complex issues in layman terms, suggest strategies, investigate and uncover facts, perform literature reviews, research, and prepare safety evaluations. He has been deposed / testified over 50 times in the last 5 years.
Dr. Jeffrey Buckholz is a practicing design engineer with over 40 years of experience in Traffic Engineering, Traffic Signal Timing, Signal Design and Signal Construction. He is also proficient in Pavement Marking Design, Roadway Signing, and Work Zone Traffic Control. Dr. Buckholz has authored 3 national training manuals in signal design, construction and inspection. He is a PE in 6 states: FL, GA, CA, MA, MI, OH and is a Professional Traffic Operations Engineer. Dr. Buckholz has been chief engineer of his engineering company for 30 years and was an Adjunct Professor at the University of North Florida from 2005 through 2007. He has served as an expert witness in over 220 cases. Past Project Experience:
Traffic Signal and ITS Design
Traffic Signal Timing
Signing and Pavement Marking Design
Work Zone Traffic Control Design
Accident Reconstruction Expert Witness Jose Granda
Jose J. Granda, PhD, PE, is a Professor of Mechanical Engineering at the California State University in Sacramento, CA. Prof. Granda is a Professional Registered Mechanical Engineer with almost 40 years of experience in the industry. A NASA Fellow, he served as a NASA public spokesman for 17 space shuttle missions.
Degrees and License:
PhD in Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Davis
ME in Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley
MS in Mechanical Engineering, National Polytechnic University, Ecuador
PE (Professional Engineer) License in Mechanical Engineering
Specialized Training: Vehicle Dynamics and Design, Vehicle Safety and Crash Reconstruction, Accident Bio-mechanics, Finite Element Modeling in Computer Aided Design, Advanced Mechanical Design and Failure Analysis, CSUS; Motorcycle Accident reconstruction; EDR Certification, Tech 1, Tech II, EDR Analysis Certification, Collision Safety Institute; Applying Automotive EDR Data to Traffic Crash Reconstruction, SAE Society of Automotive Engineers International; Advanced Accident Reconstruction Utilizing Human Factors course; Photogrammetry for Collision Reconstruction, Lightpoint Data; Bicycle and Pedestrian Accident Reconstructions; Heavy Commercial Vehicles Accident Reconstruction
Litigation Support - Prof. Granda is an expert in Forensic Engineering and Accident Reconstruction using computer simulations. His cases include accidents involving vehicles and people. He offers services to attorneys for plaintiff and defendant which include thorough written reports, depositions, and trial experience.
Based on over 50 years of experience, Bill Uhl helps attorneys with standard of care, safety and training issues regarding ATV, utility vehicle/side by side, snowmobile, motorcycle dirt bike and other off-road vehicle accidents. Mr. Uhl also assists attorneys with cases regarding recreational facilities and tours using all-terrain vehicles and other recreational off-road vehicles (ROVs). Other cases have dealt with safety training for customers, trail route maintenance, mechanical maintenance, motocross racecourse design and construction safety, dual sport bikes, street bikes, quads, and mountain bike trails.
Mr. Uhl has been a Sr. Instructor for OHVtraining.org, designated a “Preferred Training School” for over 25 years, training off-highway vehicle users in agencies as diverse as all branches of Military Special Forces, government agencies, Honda ATV test riders, Quest, T-Mobile, Kinder Morgan Natural Gas Pipeline Company and power plants. He was also inducted into the AMA International Hall of Fame for his on and off course expertise
Mr. Uhl has been the co-owner, operator, and lead mechanic of a retail store selling OHVs and street bikes for 26 years. He has been sponsored by OHV companies to represent the U.S. in international competitions, winning 5 gold medals for the U.S. Racing over 150,000 miles in the most rugged terrain around the world, Mr. Uhl has been named "Enduro Rider of the Year" by Motorcycle Magazine and been honored as a "Cross Country Legend" by the AHRMA national organization. He has also been designing, constructing, and maintaining recreational trails for over 20 years.
Litigation Support: Since 2004, Mr. Uhl has completed over 78 Off-Highway Vehicle cases, working for both plaintiffs and defendants, helping attorneys identify case merits, writing reports, preparing exhibits and providing depositions and trial testimony. He also helps attorneys understand Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) guidelines for OHVs. He simplifies complex information about safety and risk issues related to incidents and injuries so they are easy for both attorneys and jurors to comprehend.
Areas of Expertise:
ATV (All-Terrain Vehicle), Quad, Four-Wheeler
UTV (Utility Terrain Vehicle), Side by Side, RZR
Motorcycle Dirt Bike
Dual Sport Motorcycle
Motocross Track Design
Motocross and closed-course competition
Street Bike Motorcycle accident
Standard of care
Analyze merits of a case
Content of off-road vehicle owner / operator’s manuals
Content of AMA’s off-road Competition Rulebook
Guided ATV Tour accidents / lack of maintenance or safety training
Guided UTV Tour accidents / lack of maintenance or safety training
Guided Snowmobile Tour accidents / lack of maintenance or safety training
ATV, Snowmobile & UTV rental accidents / lack of maintenance or safety training
Inadequate safety training for your off-road vehicle
The physics of operating off-road vehicles
Training & skill development for off-road / off-highway vehicles
Instructor training for ATV, UTV, snowmobiles & motorcycle dirt bikes
Motorized and non-motorized trail construction and maintenance
When we drive our cars and trucks, most of us don’t notice every time we enter our vehicle how well the seat belts are working. We are not prone to even think about seat belt maintenance. This is a sharp contrast to other items like regularly changing the oil in our vehicles, which we know is required maintenance.
If you are not personally an expert operator of all-terrain vehicles, snowmobiles or motorcycle dirt bikes and you take on a case involving an ATV, UTV, motorcycle or snowmobile, you’ll most likely search for an Expert Witness who specializes in off-highway vehicle (OHV) cases.
Dr. Kevin A. Rider, PhD, PE, CPE of Forensic Human Factors, LLC., providing investigations and expert testimony regarding predictable human behavior, particularly as it relates to motor vehicle and pedestrian collisions, premises liability, and slips, trips and falls, the design and use of products, and adequacy of warnings/instructions. His work focuses on identifying the Human Factors Elements that lead to unfortunate incidents, and what should have been done to prevent them.
Dr. Rider is a Licensed Professional Engineer and Certified Professional Ergonomist, and has studied human movements and behavior, and served as a human factors consultant since 1999, including five years teaching industrial engineering and occupational safety courses at West Virginia University. He has presented at professional conferences, both nationally and abroad, and his research is published and cited in a number of peer-reviewed journals. He continues to serve as a reviewer for conference and journal manuscripts.
Dr. Rider has testified over 100 times, and excels at educating attorneys and jurors. His services are available to attorneys for both Plaintiff and Defense.
Areas of Expertise:
Driver Behavior - Cell Phone Use and other In-Vehicle Distractions
Product Liability - Design, Guards, Warnings, Adequacy of Instructions
Premises Liability - Sidewalks, Shopping Centers, Community Parks, Retail Displays
Slips, Trips, and Falls
Visibility and Lighting - Illumination and Conspicuity of Objects
Workplace Safety - Defective Products, Gross Negligence or Misconduct, Third Party Actions on Worksites
The purpose of this research was to determine whether or not there is a measurable relationship between the use of expert witnesses in civil litigation and the profitability of American law firms. The subjects in the present study were 1,065 American law firms which responded to a confidential survey. . .
In essence, to warn is to place someone on advance notice of a danger or a potential danger. To warn requires that the person or people giving the warning have a superior knowledge of the harm or potential harm compared to the person or people exposed. Further, the person or the people who are warning must also have a superior knowledge of the means of reducing either the likelihood and/or the magnitude of the harm or potential harm as compared with the person or people exposed.
Air bag control modules utilize complex algorithms to make air bag deployment decisions based on crash severity related to the change in vehicle speed or deceleration over time. Due to the proprietary nature of air bag deployment algorithms, the velocity, acceleration, or displacement thresholds for air bag deployment during a collision are not easily obtained; however, a range of frontal barrier impact speeds and corresponding deceleration and displacement threshold values for air bag deployment can be approximated using known vehicle stiffness-to-weight ratios.
The purpose of this article is to distinguish the mechanism of knee injury (e.g., forward fall while foot is trapped, impact of knee on dashboard, chronic injury due to repetitive twisting, etc.) from the type of injury (e.g., torn meniscus, ruptured ACL, bursitis, etc
Quality Forensic Engineering, LLC is a full-service forensic engineering firm, providing engineering support to clients in the areas of accident reconstruction, premises liability, and product liability. With over 20 years of experience for each of our senior engineers, we utilize the latest technology for documenting evidence and retrieving data including FARO 3D scanning, aerial drone imaging, and black box downloads. Our forensic engineers are mobile, supporting clients throughout the U.S. We are headquartered in Tallahassee, Florida with remote locations in Jacksonville, Florida and Tucson, Arizona.
Dr. Brian Pfeifer, P.E.,
With over 20 years of experience investigating and testifying in cases involving a variety of forensic engineering issues, Dr. Pfeifer is a leading expert in accident reconstruction, roadside safety, maintenance of traffic, and analysis of mechanical systems, and product failures. Dr. Pfeifer has a strong background in the design, development, and implementation of roadside safety hardware including guardrails, bridge rails, and crash cushions. Over 33 patents have been filed worldwide on behalf of Dr. Pfeifer and associated colleagues who invented safer guardrail systems and terminals, vehicle storage systems, shipping container handling systems, and material handling and storage methods.
Dr. Pfeifer has published numerous papers to various organizations including the Transportation Research Board and Port Technology International, covering topics ranging from new guardrail systems, energy-absorbing guardrail terminals, and breakaway mechanisms incorporated in traffic signs to material handling technology. Dr. Pfeifer’s expertise has been shared with many organizations such as the Florida Justice Association, Palm Beach County Justice Association, American Bar Association, Defense Research Institute, and Alabama Defense Lawyers Association with presentations he’s made on topics including vehicle collisions, bicycle accidents, roadway constructions zones, and accident reconstruction expert witness utilization.
Dr. Pfeifer is a registered Professional Engineer in three states and stays current with learning new technology in the field of forensic engineering. He has refined his skills and knowledge of accident reconstruction and roadside safety by taking dozens of continuing education courses over the span of his career.
Tractor / Trailer Collisions
Black Box Analysis
Product Failure Analysis
Maintenance of Traffic (MOT) evaluation
Restraint System Analysis
Ms. Traci Campbell, P.E., CXLT,
Ms. Campbell is an Industrial engineer with specialties in industrial accident reconstruction, including slip, trip, and fall analysis, human and environment interaction, forklifts, applicable standards and guidelines, and workplace-safety issues. Her expertise also includes vehicular accident reconstruction involving automobiles, trucks, tractor-trailers, and recreational vehicles, as well as, product failure analysis.
Slip / Trip / Fall
Retail Facility Safety
Human and Environment Interaction
ANSI / ASTM / Building Codes
Guarding & Warnings
Forklifts and Construction Equipment
Theme Parks / Recreation Safety and Facilities
Tractor / Trailer Collisions
Airbag and Black Box Analysis
Product Design / Failure Analysis
Mr. Chris Yates, P.E.,
Mr. Chris Yates, P.E., is a Mechanical Engineer with specialties in accident reconstruction, including electronic module downloads for both automobile airbag modules and tractor-trailer electronic control modules. His expertise includes auto accidents, tractor-trailer accidents, bicycle accidents, pedestrian accidents, and other roadway accidents. His expertise also includes seat belts, occupant kinematics, product failure analysis, and other general engineering issues.
Dr. Shakir Shatnawi, PhD, PE, is a nationally and internationally recognized expert in the Transportation Engineering industry. Shakir has a Ph.D. in Transportation Engineering. He has over 30 years of practical and extensive engineering and transportation expertise covering industry and public agencies including FHWA and the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans). Shakir is currently the president of Shatec Engineering Consultants. He taught highway engineering, traffic engineering and transportation engineering and pavement design at California State University. Dr. Shatnawi served as a principal investigator on multi-million dollar transportation projects. He held various positions at Caltrans including a Senior Transportation Engineer, a Supervising Transportation Engineer and a Division Chief. Dr. Shatnawi's education and experience demonstrates a wealth of engineering knowledge encompassing highway design, traffic engineering, pavement design, geotechnical engineering, materials and construction . As a recipient of many acknowledgements from the government, Dr. Shatnawi has an impeccable reputation within the industry for his significant professional contributions. As an expert orator, he frequently shares his knowledge at major conferences around the world. Dr. Shatnawi provides expert witness services in the following areas:
Douglas Baumgarten, M.S., offers consulting and expert witness services related to Fitness, Health Clubs, Exercise Equipment, Personal Training and Sports. Mr. Baumgarten is a graduate of Harvard University and California University of Penna. (M.S. Exercise Science). He is a certified Health/Fitness Director (Amer. Coll. of Sports Medicine), Performance Enhancement Specialist, Medical Exercise Specialist, Bike Fitter, cycling coach, and baseball/softball official.
Mr. Baumgarten has over 40 years in the fitness industry, as personal trainer, manager, consultant, equipment dealer, President of a large fitness company, and owner of SportFit Consulting. He has contributed to Fitness Management magazine, Boardroom magazine, Club Management magazine, and other publications.
Litigation Support - Mr. Baumgarten has over 15 years of experience as a legal expert, on cases from equipment accidents to health club employee conduct. He works with both plaintiffs and defendants, and has testified in civil and criminal courts. Douglas Baumgarten has the experience and expertise to assist in cases involving:
Every club struggles with safety and liability issues. In addition to OSHA, state, and local regulations governing employee safety, clubs must take every reasonable precaution to protect their members from harm – while still offering a satisfying service experience
Kristopher J. Seluga, PE, is a Mechanical Engineering, Accident Reconstruction, Biomechanics, and Safety Expert with over 20 years of experience. He received his Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees from the Mechanical Engineering department at MIT where he worked on the development of novel three-dimensional printing technologies.
Mr. Seluga is also a licensed Professional Engineer in New York and Connecticut, and has served as a member of the ANSI engineering committee for the Z130.1 and Z135 standards for golf cars and PTV’s. His research interests and peer reviewed publications span the topics of Motor Vehicle Dynamics, Product Safety, and Biomechanics.
Litigation Support - Mr. Seluga has been working as a forensic engineer at Technology Associates since 2001. He has investigated 100s of accidents for both plaintiffs and defendants. Mr. Seluga has been qualified to testify as an expert in state and federal court and is experienced in testifying in depositions and trials. He has successfully defeated Daubert / Frye challenges and can prepare and explain compelling exhibits at trial.
Airbags are credited with reducing numerous injuries and saving many lives during vehicle accidents. However, there have been incidents where they do not function as intended, and have even caused injuries such as explosive powder burns, detached eye retinas, child suffocation and impact deaths.
Animations are useful visual tools that can help jurors understand how an incident could, or could not, have occurred. Simply describing an event in court, or showing still pictures, may be insufficient to explain a complex sequence of events.
Biomechanics is the application of mechanics to the interaction of biological systems with their external environment. When investigating an accident, biomechanical analysis can be used to reconstruct a victim’s motion and relate it to his injuries.
When an understanding of complex motions associated with various accidents is required, computer simulation is an invaluable tool, which allows the modeling and visualization of rollovers and collisions. In addition to vehicle accidents, computer simulation can also be used to create many other systems of masses and contacting surfaces, such as a toppling light pole after it has been struck.
Construction sites and equipment present many hazards if proper care is not taken. The space in and around a construction site is often filled with potentially dangerous, high-powered equipment capable of delivering high forces.
Doors and gates, whether automated or manual, can pose a serious hazard to users if not designed, manufactured, installed and maintained properly. The different types include automatic doors, overhead garage doors, elevator doors, sliding doors, swinging doors, and automatic gates.
Electric fires are becoming more common as appliances and electric feeds are used more and more in our daily lives. Like other fires, the root cause of an electric fire is the introduction of heat, oxygen, and fuel.
Electric power and electronic appliances are so integrated with modern life that there is a high degree of likelihood that everyone will receive one or more electric shocks in a lifetime. In many cases, only trivial power levels are involved.
Second only to automobile accidents, falls are the leading cause of injury and deaths. Of these, accidents due to slipping or tripping form a large proportion. Slips and trips occur on floors, streets, walkways, stairs, etc.
Forklifts, industrial trucks, skid steer loaders, bobcats and other similar material-handling machines are often difficult to maneuver and susceptible to a wide range of accidents. Their nature exposes operators and nearby co-workers to falling loads, crushing hazards and lading dock falls.
There are roughly 9,000 golf cart related accidents requiring emergency room treatment in the United States each year. The majority of these accidents are related to either braking, cart rollover or passenger ejection. These problems are common to golf carts due to their open design, lack of seatbelts, poor braking capabilities and the uneven terrains they are driven on.
The primary function of all guarding is to prevent an operator or bystander from being injured by a potentially dangerous portion of a machine. Often the hazard involves moving parts with the potential to cut, crush or draw-in body parts, although barrier guards may also be necessary when electrical, thermal or chemical dangers are present.
Human Factors and Ergonomics (HFE) is a branch of science, which is concerned with man’s interaction with his universe. Thus, it is not simply the study of pure science (e.g. sound or light), but rather man’s understanding and reactions (e.g. to hear and see).
There are over 100,000 ladder accidents annually in the U.S. requiring hospital emergency room treatment. Although many of these result from user misuse, such as an improper extension ladder lean angle against a wall causing it to slip outward, use of a damaged ladder, or failing to lock a step ladder’s spreaders, many ladders fail due to design or manufacturing defects.
Motorcycles, like passenger cars, are capable of high speeds and must share the road with other vehicles. However, unlike passenger cars, motorcycles are capable of rapid accelerations, offer little protection to the operator during a collision and require special skills to maneuver effectively.
In many vehicle accident investigations, it is necessary to know not only the speeds and motions of the vehicles involved, but the causes of injuries suffered by their occupants as well. Such investigations seek to answer questions regarding occupant ejection, effects of seatbelt use, airbag deployment and body-interior impacts.
Parking lots are the scene of many pedestrian accidents because of the close proximity of people and cars and the confusing traffic patterns that sometimes exist. In addition to pedestrian-vehicle collisions, many trip and fall accidents occur in parking lots as well.
Though swimming pool accidents are sometimes the result of reckless participant behavior, they can also be caused by inadequate supervision, warnings, structures, or defective pool design. Structures commonly found in or near swimming pools include slides, ladders, diving surfaces and fencing.
Approximately 125,000 serious injuries occur in the US each year related to the use of portable and fixed power saws. Lacerations and similar injuries, such as abrasions and avulsions, account for over 90% of these, which generally occur to males and result in losses in the tens of millions of dollars annually.
An end user of a product expects that a given product will not only function as intended, but will be safe from non-obvious hazards. Based upon decades of experience with mishaps during use of common and specialized equipment, thousands of standards have been developed for many consumer products and industrial equipment. Numerous organizations exist, e.g., ANSI, ASTM, SAE, and ASME, that regularly review and update these standards.
Places of business, residences, parking and recreational areas contain potential accident sources such as slippery floors and stairs, product displays, automatic doors, ledges, railings, elevators, escalators and other hazardous items. To prevent such items from causing injury to the public, premises owners and their agents have a responsibility to recognize unsafe conditions and exercise reasonable care to maintain or make conditions safe, or warn the public of the risks involved.
Supermarkets, pharmacies, home improvement, and department stores expose their customers to many potential accident sources such as floors and aisles, which can become unsafe, and display merchandize that can topple or cause tripping. To prevent such accidents from occurring, these establishments should maintain routine scheduled inspections to insure that unsafe conditions are detected and corrected before accidents occur.
In many vehicle rollover investigations, it is necessary to know not only the speeds and motions of the vehicles involved, but the causes of injuries suffered by their occupants as well. Such investigations seek to answer questions regarding occupant ejection, effects of seatbelt use, roof crush and body-interior impacts.
Motor vehicle seatbelt use provides highly effective protection in frontal collisions for impact angles up to 30 degrees off-center (i.e. between 11 and 1 o’clock). All states have laws requiring their use for front seat passengers, as they have been shown to reduce moderate to severe injuries by 50%. They are less effective when your car is hit in the rear or side and sometimes their locking devices malfunction or the anchorage gives way.
Recreation, sports, and gym equipment are subjected to large dynamic forces and must be designed to support these loads and protect users from unintentional hazards. Adequate instructions and warnings may be required if their assembly and proper use are not obvious.
Codes and standards specify criteria necessary to ensure that a product, material or process will consistently and safely perform its intended function. Although standards provide minimum design requirements, conforming to a standard is not always sufficient in preventing an accident.
Structural failure can often produce catastrophic results. In many cases, the damage seen after the accident is not indicative of the cause of the initial failure. Fortunately, based on physical evidence, an investigator can frequently determine how and why a structure failed.
Heavy trucks, whether tractor-trailers, construction vehicles or garbage haulers, are involved in many serious traffic accidents due to their large weight, high centers of gravity, decreased visibility, poor handling and reduced braking efficiency. In addition, articulated tractor-trailers are subject to additional problems such as jack-knife and trailer sway instabilities.
Motor vehicle accidents are the most common type of incidents producing injury in the US. The main issues in litigating automotive accidents involve vehicle speeds, seatbelt usage, airbag deployment, vehicle component failure (e.g. steering, braking), roadway design, occupant biomechanics, rollover, visibility, etc.
A person’s interaction with his environment comes largely from visual cues. Without this information, a pedestrian can trip over an unseen object or a driver might not detect a dangerous situation. In order to avoid these hazards, a person requires adequate lighting and should be provided with appropriate illumination for a given task.
A warning must inform individuals of a danger, which would not be obvious to them. It must tell them how to avoid the danger, and be easily understood. It should also provide them with the consequences of not heading the warning.
A car is stopped for a light when it is unexpectedly rear-ended causing little or no damage to either vehicle. Nevertheless, the passengers of the struck vehicle complain of neck, shoulder and back pain. Insurance claim representatives, attorneys, medical, engineering and biomedical experts are then brought in and various conflicting allegations, testimony and opinions are expressed.
Pedestrian and bicycle accidents in the United States result in approximately 80,000 and 50,000 injuries each year, respectively. Though pedestrians and bicycles move differently, they share important characteristics as both have little protection during a roadway collision with a motor vehicle.
A standard can be defined as a document issued by a recognized agency, and dealing with design and/or safety requirements relating to a specific product or type of activity. Such agencies include the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (051-IA) and the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). OSHA standards are generally legally binding for an employer, while ANSI standards are generally of an advisory nature. The term "industry standard," however, is ordinarily taken to have a broader meaning, including formal standards as just defined, and also including designs and procedures not required in formal standards, though prevailing in a specific industry, and which represent generally accepted custom and practice.
Persons with no training in engineering are generally unaware of the nature of engineering analysis, and so tend to assume that testing, as a means of determining the causation of accidents, is a dominant tool of the engineer. In the following examples, we shall undertake to explain the nature of engineering analysis, and to show that it is more basic than testing because testing without analysis is meaningless. Further, while analysis is always necessary in accident reconstruction, testing is only sometimes necessary.
Second to automobile accidents, accidents due to falls are the leading cause of injury and death. Of these, accidents due to slipping (not tripping) form a large proportion. Slipping may occur on floors, walkways, and stairs or steps. For Introductory purposes, however, the present discussion will be limited to slipping on flat surfaces such as a floor or sidewalk.
When a person becomes aware of a dangerous situation, a time-interval must elapse before he can take defensive action against it. This time interval, commonly called the reaction time, has been found to be about 0.7 second for all normal persons, regardless of their background and training. This suggests that the reaction time depends on some basic aspect of the human physiology-involving the brain, nervous system, and muscles-which does not vary much from person to person.
A car is stopped for a light when it is unexpectedly rear-ended by a vehicle from behind. It is not a hard impact and there is little or no damage to either vehicle, because the energy absorbing bumpers have protected them. Nevertheless, the passengers of the struck vehicle complain of neck, shoulder and back pain. The next day they allegedly experience even greater pain and visit a medical person who claims that they have been injured. Insurance claim representatives, attorneys, medical, engineering and biomedical experts are then brought in and various conflicting allegations, testimony and opinions are expressed. Do we have a legitimate injury claim on our hands or a situation of fraud?
Accident reconstructionists are often called on to determine the distance that a car, covers while being braked to a stop. Conversely, the reconstructionist may be given information as to the length of the skidmarks left by a car on the roadway, and may be asked to determine how fast the car must have been going at the beginning of the skid. An expert can accomplish this with considerable accuracy, based on a knowledge of the physical principles that are involved, plus available information relating to the friction of tires on various types of road surfaces.
According to the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC), there are approximately 10,000 golf car related injuries requiring emergency room treatment in the US each year. One significant mode of injury in golf car accidents is passenger ejection, which can lead to serious injuries, especially of the head. Based on CPSC statistics, roughly 35% of golf car accidents involve a person falling out of the car. In addition to ejection accidents, at least 10% of golf car accidents involve a rollover and statistics indicate that such accidents are roughly twice as likely to lead to injuries requiring a hospital stay as non-rollover accidents.
According to Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) accident estimates, tens of thousands of stepladder accidents requiring emergency room treatment occurred annually in the United States. Approximately 85-90% of these accidents involve the user falling from the ladder and 8-9% of these injuries are serious enough to require that the victim be admitted to a hospital. In addition to posing a severe health concern, these accidents have significant loss-of-wages and high medical expense implications.
Participation of the proper automotive expert in a personal injury lawsuit can govern its success. This article develops four basic principles to optimize their use, while minimizing their cost, and describes some important techniques used by the accident reconstructionist